This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1.JA Salomon , H Wang , MK Freeman (2012) Healthy life expectancy for 187 countries, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden Disease Study. Lancet 380, 2144–2162.
2.OH Franco , K Karnik , G Osborne (2009) Changing course in ageing research: the healthy ageing phenotype. Maturitas 63, 13–19.
4.WC Willett (2012) Dietary fats and coronary heart disease. J Intern Med 272, 13–24.
5.KN Aronis , SM Khan & CS Mantzoros (2012) Effects of trans fatty acids on glucose homeostasis: a meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 1093–1099.
6.FB Hu (2002) Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol 13, 3–9.
7.AK Kant (2010) Dietary patterns: biomarkers and chronic disease risk. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 35, 199–206.
8.EM Jones-McLean , B Shatenstein & SJ Whiting (2010) Dietary patterns research and its applications to nutrition policy for the prevention of chronic disease among diverse North American populations. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 35, 195–198.
10.KL Tucker (2010) Dietary patterns, approaches, and multicultural perspective. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 35, 211–218.
12.EJ Feskens & D Kromhout (1993) Epidemiologic studies on Eskimos and fish intake. Ann N Y Acad Sci 683, 9–15.
13.A Keys , A Menotti , MJ Karvonen (1986) The diet and 15-year death rate in the seven countries study. Am J Epidemiol 124, 903–915.
14.B Haber (1997) The Mediterranean diet: a view from history. Am J Clin Nutr 66, 1053S–1057S.
17.TT Fung , M Schulze , JE Manson (2004) Dietary patterns, meat intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Arch Intern Med 164, 2235–2240.
18.TT Fung , MJ Stampfer , JE Manson (2004) Prospective study of major dietary patterns and stroke risk in women. Stroke 35, 2014–2019.
19.TT Fung , WC Willett , MJ Stampfer (2001) Dietary patterns and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. Arch Intern Med 161, 1857–1862.
20.FB Hu , EB Rimm , MJ Stampfer (2000) Prospective study of major dietary patterns and risk of coronary heart disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 912–921.
21.MD Stricker , NC Onland-Moret , JM Boer (2013) Dietary patterns derived from principal component- and k-means cluster analysis: long-term association with coronary heart disease and stroke. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 23, 250–256.
22.M Ozawa , T Ninomiya , T Ohara (2013) Dietary patterns and risk of dementia in an elderly Japanese population: the Hisayama Study. Am J Clin Nutr 97, 1076–1082.
24.P Guallar-Castillon , F Rodriguez-Artalejo , MJ Tormo (2012) Major dietary patterns and risk of coronary heart disease in middle-aged persons from a Mediterranean country: the EPIC-Spain cohort study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 22, 192–199.
25.AL Anderson , TB Harris , FA Tylavsky (2011) Dietary patterns and survival of older adults. J Am Diet Assoc 111, 84–91.
26.M Hamer , SA McNaughton , CJ Bates (2010) Dietary patterns, assessed from a weighed food record, and survival among elderly participants from the United Kingdom. Eur J Clin Nutr 64, 853–861.
27.K Maruyama , H Iso , C Date (2013) Dietary patterns and risk of cardiovascular deaths among middle-aged Japanese: JACC Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 23, 519–527.
28.C Heidemann , MB Schulze , OH Franco (2008) Dietary patterns and risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes in a prospective cohort of women. Circulation 118, 230–237.
29.C Bamia , D Trichopoulos , P Ferrari (2007) Dietary patterns and survival of older Europeans: the EPIC-Elderly Study (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Public Health Nutr 10, 590–598.
31.J Meyer , A Doring , C Herder (2011) Dietary patterns, subclinical inflammation, incident coronary heart disease and mortality in middle-aged men from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg cohort study. Eur J Clin Nutr 65, 800–807.
32.M Heroux , I Janssen , M Lam (2010) Dietary patterns and the risk of mortality: impact of cardiorespiratory fitness. Int J Epidemiol 39, 197–209.
33.PY Hsiao , DC Mitchell , DL Coffman (2013) Dietary patterns and relationship to obesity-related health outcomes and mortality in adults 75 years of age or greater. J Nutr Health Aging 17, 566–572.
34.C Weikert , K Hoffmann , J Dierkes (2005) A homocysteine metabolism-related dietary pattern and the risk of coronary heart disease in two independent German study populations. J Nutr 135, 1981–1988.
35.J Hlebowicz , M Persson , B Gullberg (2011) Food patterns, inflammation markers and incidence of cardiovascular disease: the Malmo Diet and Cancer study. J Intern Med 270, 365–376.
36.Y Li , Y He , J Lai (2011) Dietary patterns are associated with stroke in Chinese adults. J Nutr 141, 1834–1839.
37.VS Malik , TT Fung , RM van Dam (2012) Dietary patterns during adolescence and risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged women. Diabetes Care 35, 12–18.
(2002) Dietary patterns and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in U.S. men. Ann Intern Med
39.AO Odegaard , WP Koh , LM Butler (2011) Dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes in Chinese men and women: the Singapore Chinese health study. Diabetes Care 34, 880–885.
40.E Kesse-Guyot , VA Andreeva , C Jeandel (2012) A healthy dietary pattern at midlife is associated with subsequent cognitive performance. J Nutr 142, 909–915.
41.SJ Torres , NT Lautenschlager , N Wattanapenpaiboon (2012) Dietary patterns are associated with cognition among older people with mild cognitive impairment. Nutrients 4, 1542–1551.
42.Y Gu , JW Nieves , Y Stern (2010) Food combination and Alzheimer disease risk: a protective diet. Arch Neurol 67, 699–706.
43.ET Kennedy , J Ohls , S Carlson (1995) The Healthy Eating Index: design and applications. J Am Diet Assoc 95, 1103–1108.
44.PM Guenther , J Reedy & SM Krebs-Smith (2008) Development of the Healthy Eating Index-2005. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 1896–1901.
45.X Ye , T Scott , X Gao (2013) Mediterranean diet, healthy eating index 2005, and cognitive function in middle-aged and older Puerto Rican adults. J Acad Nutr Diet 113, 276–281.
46.DK Tobias , FB Hu , J Chavarro (2012) Healthful dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med 172, 1566–1572.
47.C Agnoli , V Krogh , S Grioni (2011) A priori-defined dietary patterns are associated with reduced risk of stroke in a large Italian cohort. J Nutr 141, 1552–1558.
48.R Kappeler , M Eichholzer & S Rohrmann (2013) Meat consumption and diet quality and mortality in NHANES III. Eur J Clin Nutr 67, 598–606.
49.AD Rathod , AS Bharadwaj , AO Badheka (2012) Healthy Eating Index and mortality in a nationally representative elderly cohort. Arch Intern Med 172, 275–277.
50.AK Kant , A Schatzkin , BI Graubard (2000) A prospective study of diet quality and mortality in women. JAMA 283, 2109–2115.
52.SA McNaughton , K Ball , D Crawford (2008) An index of diet and eating patterns is a valid measure of diet quality in an Australian population. J Nutr 138, 86–93.
55.J Mursu , LM Steffen , KA Meyer (2013) Diet quality indexes and mortality in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 444–453.
56.T Akbaraly , S Sabia , G Hagger-Johnson (2013) Does overall diet in midlife predict future aging phenotypes? A cohort study. Am J Med 126, 411–419.
57.World Health Organisation (1990) Diet, nutrition, and the prevention of chronic diseases. Report of a WHO Study Group. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
58.P Huijbregts , E Feskens , L Rasanen (1997) Dietary pattern and 20 year mortality in elderly men in Finland, Italy, and The Netherlands: longitudinal cohort study. BMJ 315, 13–17.
59.P Sjogren , W Becker , E Warensjo (2010) Mediterranean and carbohydrate-restricted diets and mortality among elderly men: a cohort study in Sweden. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 967–974.
60.A Trichopoulou , A Kouris-Blazos , ML Wahlqvist (1995) Diet and overall survival in elderly people. BMJ 311, 1457–1460.
61.A Trichopoulou , T Costacou , C Bamia (2003) Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and survival in a Greek population. N Engl J Med 348, 2599–2608.
62.M Osler & M Schroll (1997) Diet and mortality in a cohort of elderly people in a north European community. Int J Epidemiol 26, 155–159.
65.PN Mitrou , V Kipnis , AC Thiebaut (2007) Mediterranean dietary pattern and prediction of all-cause mortality in a US population: results from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Arch Intern Med 167, 2461–2468.
66.G Behrens , B Fischer , S Kohler (2013) Healthy lifestyle behaviors and decreased risk of mortality in a large prospective study of U.S. women and men. Eur J Epidemiol 28, 361–372.
67.A Trichopoulou , P Orfanos , T Norat (2005) Modified Mediterranean diet and survival: EPIC-elderly prospective cohort study. BMJ 330, 991.
68.LJ Appel , TJ Moore , E Obarzanek (1997) A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 336, 1117–1124.
69.A Salehi-Abargouei , Z Maghsoudi , F Shirani (2013) Effects of dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH)-style diet on fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular diseases – incidence: a systematic review and meta-analysis on observational prospective studies. Nutrition 29, 611–618.
72.M Dehghan , A Mente , KK Teo (2012) Relationship between healthy diet and risk of cardiovascular disease among patients on drug therapies for secondary prevention: a prospective cohort study of 31 546 high-risk individuals from 40 countries. Circulation 126, 2705–2712.
73.L de Koning , SE Chiuve , TT Fung (2011) Diet-quality scores and the risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes Care 34, 1150–1156.
74.NJ Wald & MR Law (2003) A strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease by more than 80%. BMJ 326, 1419.
75.OH Franco , L Bonneux , C de Laet (2004) The Polymeal: a more natural, safer, and probably tastier (than the Polypill) strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease by more than 75%. BMJ 329, 1447–1450.
77.PP Huijbregts , EJ Feskens , L Rasanen (1998) Dietary patterns and cognitive function in elderly men in Finland, Italy and The Netherlands. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 826–831.
78.ML Correa Leite , A Nicolosi , S Cristina (2001) Nutrition and cognitive deficit in the elderly: a population study. Eur J Clin Nutr 55, 1053–1058.
79.T Psaltopoulou , TN Sergentanis , DB Panagiotakos (2013) Mediterranean diet and stroke, cognitive impairment, depression: a meta-analysis. Ann Neurol 74, 580–591.
80.F Sofi , F Cesari , R Abbate (2008) Adherence to Mediterranean diet and health status: meta-analysis. BMJ 337, a1344.
81.TT Fung , KM Rexrode , CS Mantzoros (2009) Mediterranean diet and incidence of and mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke in women. Circulation 119, 1093–1100.
82.G Misirli , V Benetou , P Lagiou (2012) Relation of the traditional Mediterranean diet to cerebrovascular disease in a Mediterranean population. Am J Epidemiol 176, 1185–1192.
84.MA Martinez-Gonzalez , M Garcia-Lopez , M Bes-Rastrollo (2011) Mediterranean diet and the incidence of cardiovascular disease: a Spanish cohort. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 21, 237–244.
85.ST Chen , NM Maruthur & LJ Appel (2010) The effect of dietary patterns on estimated coronary heart disease risk: results from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 3, 484–489.
86.R Estruch , E Ros , J Salas-Salvado (2013) Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet. N Engl J Med 368, 1279–1290.
87.EH Martinez-Lapiscina , P Clavero , E Toledo (2013) Mediterranean diet improves cognition: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomised trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 84, 1318–1325.
(2012) Effects on nutrient intake of a family-based intervention to promote increased consumption of low-fat starchy foods through education, cooking skills and personalised goal setting: the Family Food and Health Project. Br J Nutr
90.A Granic , R Andel , AK Dahl (2013) Midlife dietary patterns and mortality in the population-based study of Swedish twins. J Epidemiol Commun Health 67, 578–586.
93.PM Guenther , KO Casavale , J Reedy (2013) Update of the Healthy Eating Index: HEI-2010. J Acad Nutr Diet 113, 569–580.
94.ML McCullough , D Feskanich , MJ Stampfer (2002) Diet quality and major chronic disease risk in men and women: moving toward improved dietary guidance. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 1261–1271.
96.VK Knudsen , S Fagt , E Trolle (2012) Evaluation of dietary intake in Danish adults by means of an index based on food-based dietary guidelines. Food Nutr Res 56, 1–8.
97.C Estaquio , E Kesse-Guyot , V Deschamps (2009) Adherence to the French Programme National Nutrition Santé Guideline Score is associated with better nutrient intake and nutritional status. J Am Diet Assoc 109, 1031–1041.
98.M Maynard , AR Ness , L Abraham (2005) Selecting a healthy diet score: lessons from a study of diet and health in early old age (the Boyd Orr cohort). Public Health Nutr 8, 321–326.
100.WC Willett , F Sacks , A Trichopoulou (1995) Mediterranean diet pyramid: a cultural model for healthy eating. Am J Clin Nutr 61, 1402S–1406S.
101.A Alberti , D Fruttini , F Fidanza (2009) The Mediterranean Adequacy Index: further confirming results of validity. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 19, 61–66.
102.A Alberti-Fidanza , F Fidanza (2004) Mediterranean Adequacy Index of Italian diets. Public Health Nutr 7, 937–941.
103.S Lee , L Harnack , DR Jacobs Jr (2007) Trends in diet quality for coronary heart disease prevention between 1980–1982 and 2000–2002: The Minnesota Heart Survey. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 213–222.
(1997) A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med
105.TT Fung , SE Chiuve , ML McCullough (2008) Adherence to a DASH-style diet and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in women. Arch Intern Med 168, 713–720.