Skip to main content

The potential role of fruit and vegetables in aspects of psychological well-being: a review of the literature and future directions

  • Ciara Rooney (a1), Michelle C. McKinley (a1) and Jayne V. Woodside (a1)

The objective of the present paper was to review the literature investigating the potential relationship between fruit and vegetables (FV) and psychological well-being. The rising prevalence of mental ill health is causing considerable societal burden. Inexpensive and effective strategies are therefore required to improve the psychological well-being of the population, and to reduce the negative impact of mental health problems. A growing body of literature suggests that dietary intake may have the potential to influence psychological well-being. For example, studies have suggested that particular dietary constituents, including vitamins and minerals, might be beneficial to psychological health. However, in order to better reflect normal dietary intake, health-based research has increasingly begun to focus on whole foods and dietary patterns, rather than individual nutrients. One food group that has received increasing attention with regard to psychological health is FV. This is probably a result of the strong evidence base, which exists in relation to their protective association with a number of chronic diseases, as well as the fact that they are a rich source of some of the nutrients which have been linked to psychological health. While some promising findings exist with regards to FV intake and psychological well-being, overall, results are inconsistent. Possible reasons for this, such as methodological issues related to study design and the measurement of psychological well-being and FV intake, are discussed within this review. Based on the predominantly observational nature of existing literature, the present paper concludes that future well-designed randomised controlled trials are required to investigate the relationship further.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The potential role of fruit and vegetables in aspects of psychological well-being: a review of the literature and future directions
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The potential role of fruit and vegetables in aspects of psychological well-being: a review of the literature and future directions
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The potential role of fruit and vegetables in aspects of psychological well-being: a review of the literature and future directions
      Available formats
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: C. Rooney, fax +44 (0)2890235900, email
Hide All
1. Prince, M, Patel, V, Saxena, S et al. (2007) No health without mental health. Lancet 370, 859877.
2. Wittchen, HU, Jacobi, F, Rehm, J et al. (2011) The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 21, 655679.
3. World Health Organization (2008) The Global Burden of Disease: 2004 Update. Geneva: WHO.
4. Anderson, P, Jané-Llopis, E & Hosman, C (2011) Reducing the silent burden of impaired mental health. Health Promot Int 26, i4i9.
5. Russ, TC, Stamatakis, E, Hamer, M et al. (2012) Association between psychological distress and mortality: individual participant pooled analysis of 10 prospective cohort studies. BMJ 345, e4933.
6. Gustavsson, A, Svensson, M, Jacobi, F et al. (2010) Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 21, 718779.
7. Windle, G, Hughes, D, Linck, P et al. (2010) Is exercise effective in promoting mental well-being in older age? A systematic review. Aging Ment Health 14, 652669.
8. Schuch, FB, Vasconcelos-Moreno, MP & Fleck, MP (2011) The impact of exercise on quality of life within exercise and depression trials: a systematic review. Ment Health Phys Act 4, 4348.
9. Rao, TSS, Asha, MR, Ramesh, BN et al. (2008) Understanding nutrition, depression and mental illnesses. Indian J Psychiatry 50, 7782.
10. Coppen, A & Bolander-Gouaille, C (2005) Treatment of depression: time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12. J Psychopharmacol 19, 5965.
11. Jacobs, DR, Gross, MD & Tapsell, LC (2009) Food synergy: an operational concept for understanding nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1543S1548S.
12. World Health Organization (2003) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 916. Geneva: WHO.
13. He, FJ, Nowson, CA, Lucas, M et al. (2007) Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables is related to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Hum Hypertens 21, 717728.
14. Soerjomataram, I, Oomen, D, Lemmens, V et al. (2010) Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables and future cancer incidence in selected European countries. Eur J Cancer 46, 25632580.
15. Appleton, KM, Rogers, PJ & Ness, AR (2010) Updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids on depressed mood. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 757770.
16. Anglin, RES, Samaan, Z, Walter, SD et al. (2013) Vitamin D deficiency and depression in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 202, 100107.
17. Jones, EK, Sünram-Lea, SI & Wesnes, KA (2012) Acute ingestion of different macronutrients differentially enhances aspects of memory and attention in healthy young adults. Biol Psychol 89, 477486.
18. Pasman, WJ, Blokdijk, VM, Bertina, FM et al. (2003) Effect of two breakfasts, different in carbohydrate composition, on hunger and satiety and mood in healthy men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27, 663668.
19. Best, T, Kemps, E & Bryan, J (2011) Perceived changes in well-being following polysaccharide intake in middle-aged adults. Appl Res Qual Life 7, 183192.
20. Akbaraly, TN, Brunner, EJ, Ferrie, JE et al. (2009) Dietary pattern and depressive symptoms in middle age. Br J Psychiatry 195, 408413.
21. Stough, C, Scholey, A, Lloyd, J et al. (2011) The effect of 90 day administration of a high dose vitamin B-complex on work stress. Hum Psychopharmacol 26, 470476.
22. Jacka, FN, Maes, M, Pasco, JA et al. (2012) Nutrient intakes and the common mental disorders in women. J Affect Disord 141, 7985.
23. Sánchez-Villegas, A, Henríquez, P, Bes-Rastrollo, M et al. (2006) Mediterranean diet and depression. Public Health Nutr 9, 11041109.
24. Sanhueza, C, Ryan, L & Foxcroft, DR (2013) Diet and the risk of unipolar depression in adults: systematic review of cohort studies. J Hum Nutr Diet 26, 5670.
25. Long, SJ & Benton, D (2013) Effects of vitamin and mineral supplementation on stress, mild psychiatric symptoms and mood in nonclinical samples: a meta-analysis. Psychosom Med 75, 144153.
26. Morgan, AJ & Jorm, AF (2008) Self-help interventions for depressive disorders and depressive symptoms: a systematic review. Ann Gen Psychiatry 7, 13.
27. Murakami, K & Sasaki, S (2010) Dietary intake and depressive symptoms: a systematic review of observational studies. Mol Nutr Food Res 54, 471488.
28. McMartin, SE, Jacka, FN & Colman, I (2013) The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and mental health disorders: evidence from five waves of a national survey of Canadians. Prev Med 56, 225230.
29. Payne, ME, Steck, SE, George, RR et al. (2012) Fruit, vegetable, and antioxidant intakes are lower in older adults with depression. J Acad Nutr Diet 112, 20222027.
30. Tiemeier, H, Hofman, A, Kiliaan, AJ et al. (2002) Vitamin E and depressive symptoms are not related. The Rotterdam Study. J Affect Disord 72, 7983.
31. Wightman, EL, Haskell, CF, Forster, JS et al. (2012) Epigallocatechin gallate, cerebral blood flow parameters, cognitive performance and mood in healthy humans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover investigation. Hum Psychopharmacol 27, 177186.
32. Briançon, S, Boini, S, Bertrais, S et al. (2011) Long-term antioxidant supplementation has no effect on health-related quality of life: the randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled primary prevention SU.VI.MAX trial. Int J Epidemiol 40, 16051616.
33. Boehm, JK, Williams, DR, Rimm, EB et al. (2013) Association between optimism and serum antioxidants in the midlife in the United States Study. Psychosom Med 75, 210.
34. Brody, S (2002) High-dose ascorbic acid increases intercourse frequency and improves mood: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Biol Psychiatry 52, 371374.
35. Capuron, L, Moranis, A, Combe, N et al. (2009) Vitamin E status and quality of life in the elderly: influence of inflammatory processes. Br J Nutr 102, 13901394.
36. German, L, Kahana, C, Rosenfeld, V et al. (2011) Depressive symptoms are associated with food insufficiency and nutritional deficiencies in poor community-dwelling elderly people. J Nutr Health Aging 15, 38.
37. Gomez-Pinilla, F & Nguyen, TT (2012) Natural mood foods: the actions of polyphenols against psychiatric and cognitive disorders. Nutr Neurosci 15, 127133.
38. Zhu, WL, Shi, HS, Wei, YM et al. (2012) Green tea polyphenols produce antidepressant-like effects in adult mice. Pharmacol Res 65, 7480.
39. Brown, AL, Lane, J, Coverly, J et al. (2009) Effects of dietary supplementation with the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate on insulin resistance and associated metabolic risk factors: randomized controlled trial. Br J Nutr 101, 886894.
40. Pase, MP, Scholey, AB, Pipingas, A et al. (2013) Cocoa polyphenols enhance positive mood states but not cognitive performance: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Psychopharmacol 27, 451458.
41. Kaplan, BJ, Crawford, SG, Field, CJ et al. (2007) Vitamins, minerals and mood. Psychol Bull 133, 747760.
42. Shariatpanaahi, MV, Shariatpanaahi, ZV, Moshtaaghi, M et al. (2013) The relationship between depression and serum ferritin level. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 532535.
43. Jung, KI, Ock, SM, Chung, JH et al. (2010) Associations of serum Ca and Mg levels with mental health in adult women without psychiatric disorders. Biol Trace Elem Res 133, 153161.
44. Molteni, R, Barnard, RJ, Ying, Z et al. (2002) A high-fat, refined sugar diet reduces hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neuronal plasticity, and learning. Neuroscience 112, 803814.
45. Lattimore, P, Walton, J, Bartlett, S et al. (2010) Regular consumption of a cereal breakfast. Effects on mood and body image satisfaction in adult non-obese women. Appetite 55, 512521.
46. Hayes, JF, D'Anci, KE & Kanarek, RB (2011) Foods that are perceived as healthy or unhealthy differentially alter young women's state body image. Appetite 57, 384387.
47. Adams, TB & Colner, W (2008) The association of multiple risk factors with fruit and vegetable intake among a nationwide sample of college students. J Am Coll Health 56, 455461.
48. Appleton, KM, Woodside, JV, Yarnell, JWG et al. (2007) Depressed mood and dietary fish intake: direct relationship or indirect relationship as a result of diet and lifestyle? J Affect Disord 104, 217223.
49. Allgöwer, A, Wardle, J & Steptoe, A (2001) Depressive symptoms, social support, and personal health behaviors in young men and women. Health Psychol 20, 223227.
50. Fulkerson, JA, Sherwood, NE, Perry, CL et al. (2004) Depressive symptoms and adolescent eating and health behaviors: a multifaceted view in a population-based sample. Prev Med 38, 865875.
51. Myint, PK, Welch, AA, Bingham, SA et al. (2007) Fruit and vegetable consumption and self-reported functional health in men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk (EPIC–Norfolk): a population-based cross-sectional study. Public Health Nutr 10, 3441.
52. Blank, L, Grimsley, M, Goyder, E et al. (2007) Community-based lifestyle interventions: changing behaviour and improving health. J Public Health 29, 236245.
53. McGuire, LC, Strine, TW, Okoro, CA et al. (2007) Modifiable characteristics of a healthy lifestyle in U.S. older adults with or without frequent mental distress: 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 15, 754761.
54. Kiviniemi, MT, Orom, H & Giovino, GA (2011) Race/ethnicity, psychological distress, and fruit/vegetable consumption: the nature of the distress-behavior relation differs by race/ethnicity. Appetite 56, 737740.
55. Yannakoulia, M, Panagiotakos, DB, Pitsavos, C et al. (2008) Eating habits in relations to anxiety symptoms among apparently healthy adults. A pattern analysis from the ATTICA Study. Appetite 51, 519525.
56. Pronk, NP, Lowry, M, Thomas, E et al. (2011) Adherence to optimal lifestyle behaviors is related to emotional health indicators among employees. Popul Health Manag 14, 5967.
57. Liu, C, Xie, B, Chou, CP et al. (2007) Perceived stress, depression and food consumption frequency in the college students of China seven cities. Physiol Behav 92, 748754.
58. Mikolajczyk, RT, El Ansari, W & Maxwell, AE (2009) Food consumption frequency and perceived stress and depressive symptoms among students in three European countries. Nutr J 8, 31.
59. Blanchflower, DG, Oswald, AJ & Stewart-Brown, S (2013) Is psychological well-being linked to the consumption of fruit and vegetables? Soc Indic Res (Epublication ahead of print version).
60. White, BA, Horwath, CC & Conner, TS (2013) Many apples a day keep the blues away – daily experiences of negative and positive affect and food consumption in young adults. Br J Health Psychol (Epublication ahead of print version).
61. Hintikka, J, Tolmunen, T, Honkalampi, K et al. (2005) Daily tea drinking is associated with a low level of depressive symptoms in the Finnish general population. Eur J Epidemiol 20, 359363.
62. Woo, J, Lynn, H, Lau, WY et al. (2006) Nutrient intake and psychological health in an elderly Chinese population. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 21, 10361043.
63. Konttinen, H, Männistö, S, Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, S et al. (2010) Emotional eating, depressive symptoms and self-reported food consumption. A population-based study. Appetite 54, 473479.
64. Verger, P, Lions, C & Ventelou, B (2009) Is depression associated with health risk-related behaviour clusters in adults? Eur J Public Health 19, 618624.
65. George, GC, Milani, TJ, Hanss-Nuss, H et al. (2005) Compliance with dietary guidelines and relationship to psychosocial factors in low-income women in late postpartum. J A Diet Assoc 105, 916926.
66. Kuczmarski, MF, Cremer Sees, A, Hotchkiss, L et al. (2010) Higher Healthy Eating Index-2005 Scores associated with reduced symptoms of depression in an urban population: findings from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span (HANDLS) Study. J A Diet Assoc 110, 383389.
67. Jacka, FN, Pasco, JA, Mykletun, A et al. (2010) Association of Western and traditional diets with depression and anxiety in women. Am J Psychiatry 167, 305311.
68. Nanri, A, Kimura, Y, Matsushita, Y et al. (2010) Dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among Japanese men and women. Eur J Clin Nutr 64, 832839.
69. Bowen, DJ, Alfano, CM, McGregor, BA et al. (2004) The relationship between perceived risk, affect, and health behaviors. Cancer Detect Prev 28, 409417.
70. Mamplekou, E, Bountziouka, V, Psaltopoulou, T et al. (2010) Urban environment, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits correlate to depression among elderly living in eastern Mediterranean islands: the MEDIS (MEDiterranean ISlands elderly) study. J Nutr Health Aging 14, 449455.
71. Wardle, J, Haase, AM, Steptoe, A et al. (2004) Gender differences in food choice: the contribution of health beliefs and dieting. Ann Behav Med 27, 107116.
72. Niu, K, Guo, H, Kakizaki, M et al. (2013) A tomato-rich diet is related to depressive symptoms among an elderly population aged 70 years and over: a population-based, cross-sectional analysis. J Affect Disord 144, 165170.
73. O'Connor, DB, Conner, M, Jones, F et al. (2009) Exploring the benefits of conscientiousness: an investigation of the role of daily stressors and health behaviors. Ann Behav Med 37, 184196.
74. Eckert, KA, Wilkinson, D, Taylor, AW et al. (2006) A population view of mental illness in South Australia: boarder issues than location. Rural Remote Health 6, 541.
75. Froshaug, DB, Dickinson, LM, Fernald, DH et al. (2009) Personal health behaviors are associated with physical and mental unhealthy days: a prescription for health (P4H) Practice-based Research Networks Study. J Am Board Fam Med 22, 368374.
76. Muñoz, MA, Fito, M, Marrugat, J et al. (2009) Adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with better mental and physical health. Br J Nutr 101, 18211827.
77. Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, S, Lahelma, E & Roos, E (2004) Mental health and food habits among employed women and men. Appetite 42, 151156.
78. Cockerham, WC, Hinote, BP & Abbott, P (2006) Psychological distress, gender, and health lifestyles in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine. Soc Sci Med 63, 23812394.
79. Piqueras, J, Kuhne, W, Vera-Villarroel, P et al. (2011) Happiness and health behaviours in Chilean college students: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health 11, 443.
80. Grant, N, Wardle, J & Steptoe, A (2009) The relationship between life satisfaction and health behavior: a cross-sectional analysis of young adults. Int J Behav Med 16, 259268.
81. Lengyel, CO, Tate, RB & Obirek Blatz, AK (2009) The relationships between food group consumption, self-rated health, and life satisfaction of community-dwelling Canadian older men: the Manitoba follow-up study. J Nutr Elder 28, 158173.
82. Kelloniemi, H, Ek, E & Laitinen, J (2005) Optimism, dietary habits, body mass index and smoking among young Finnish adults. Appetite 45, 169176.
83. Elfhag, K, Tholin, S & Rasmussen, F (2008) Consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and soft drinks are associated with psychological dimensions of eating behaviour in parents and their 12-year-old children. Public Health Nutr 11, 914923.
84. Sánchez-Villegas, A, Delgado-Rodríguez, M, Alonso, A et al. (2009) Association of the Mediterranean dietary pattern with the incidence of depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 66, 10901098.
85. Le Port, A, Gueguen, A, Kesse-Guyot, E et al. (2012) Association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms over time: a 10-year follow-up study of the GAZEL cohort. PLoS ONE 7, e51593.
86. Tsai, AC, Chang, T-L & Chi, S-H (2011) Frequent consumption of vegetables predicts lower risk of depression in older Taiwanese – results of a prospective population-based study. Public Health Nutr 15, 10871092.
87. Jacka, FN, Kremer, PJ, Berk, M et al. (2011) A prospective study of diet quality and mental health in adolescents. PLoS ONE 6, e24805.
88. Jacka, FN, Rothon, C, Taylor, S et al. (2012) Diet quality and mental health problems in adolescents from East London: a prospective study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 48, 12971306.
89. Giltay, EJ, Gelenijnse, JM, Zitman, FG et al. (2007) Lifestyle and dietary correlates of dispositional optimism in men: the Zutphen Elderly Study. J Psychosom Res 63, 483490.
90. Krikorian, R, Nash, T, Shidler, MD et al. (2010) Concord grape juice supplementation improves memory function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Br J Nutr 103, 730734.
91. Krikorian, R, Shidler, MD, Nash, TA et al. (2010) Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults. J Agric Food Chem 58, 39964000.
92. Plaisted, CS, Lin, P-H, Ard, JD et al. (1998) The effects of dietary patterns on quality of life: a substudy of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial. J Am Diet Assoc 99, S84S89.
93. Young, DR, Coughlin, J, Jerome, GJ et al. (2010) Effects of the PREMIER interventions on health-related quality of life. Ann Behav Med 40, 302312.
94. Steptoe, A, Perkins-Porras, L, Hilton, S et al. (2004) Quality of life and self-rated health in relation to changes in fruit and vegetables intake and in plasma vitamins C and E in a randomised trial of behavioural and nutritional education counselling. Br J Nutr 92, 177184.
95. Torres, SJ & Nowson, CA (2012) A moderate-sodium DASH-type diet improves mood in postmenopausal women. Nutr 28, 896900.
96. McMillan, L, Owen, L, Kras, M et al. (2011) Behavioural effects of a 10-day Mediterranean diet. Results from a pilot study evaluating mood and cognitive performance. Appetite 56, 143147.
97. Crews, WD, Harrison, DW, Griffin, ML et al. (2005) A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the neuropsychologic efficacy of cranberry juice in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: pilot study findings. J Altern Complement Med 2, 305309.
98. Wardle, J, Rogers, P, Judd, P et al. (2000) Randomised trial of the effects of cholesterol-lowering dietary treatment on psychological function. Am J Med 108, 547553.
99. Beezhold, BL & Johnston, CS (2012) Restriction of meat, fish, and poultry in omnivores improves mood: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Nutr J 11, 9.
100. Block, G, Sternfeld, B, Block, CH et al. (2008) Development of Alive! (A Lifestyle Intervention Via Email), and its effect on health-related quality of life, presenteeism, and other behavioral outcomes: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res 10, e43.
101. Cooley, K, Szczurko, O, Perri, D et al. (2009) Naturopathic care for anxiety: a randomized controlled trial ISRCTN78958974. PloS ONE 4, e6628.
102. Zhou, B, Chen, K, Yu, Y et al. (2010) Individualized health intervention: behavioral change and quality of life in an older rural Chinese population. Educ Gerontol 36, 919939.
103. Surkan, PJ, Gottlieb, BR, McCormick, MC et al. (2012) Impact of a health promotion intervention on maternal depressive symptoms at 15 months postpartum. Matern Child Health J 16, 139148.
104. Strijk, JE, Proper, KI, van der Beek, AJ et al. (2012) A worksite vitality intervention to improve older workers’ lifestyle and vitality-related outcomes: results of a randomised controlled trial. J Epidemiol Commun Health 66, 10711078.
105. Zellner, D, Loaiza, S, Gonzalez, Z et al. (2006) Food selection changes under stress. Physiol Behav 87, 789793.
106. Oliver, G & Wardle, J (1999) Perceived effects of stress on food choice. Physiol Behav 66, 511515.
107. Macht, M (2008) How emotions affect eating: a five-way model. Appetite 50, 111.
108. Fowles, ER, Murphey, C, Ruiz, RJ et al. (2011) Exploring relationships among psychosocial status, dietary quality, and measures of placental development during the first trimester in low-income women. Biol Rev Nurs 13, 7079.
109. Hakkararainen, R, Partonen, T, Haukka, J et al. (2004) Food and nutrient intake in relation to mental wellbeing. J Nur 3, 14.
110. Stull, DE, Leidy, NK, Parasuraman, B et al. (2009) Optimal recall periods for patient-reported outcomes: challenges and potential solutions. Curr Med Res Opin 25, 929942.
111. Steptoe, A, Dockray, S & Wardle, J (2010) Positive affect and psychobiological processes relevant to health. NIH Public Access 77, 119.
112. Norquist, JM, Girman, C, Fehnel, S et al. (2012) Choice of recall period for patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures: criteria for consideration. Qual Life Res 21, 10131020.
113. World Health Organization. (2010) Mental health: strengthening our response. Available at:
114. Mortel, TF Van De (2008) Faking it: social desirability response bias in self-report research report research. Aust J Adv Nurs 25, 4048.
115. Mistry, R, McCarthy, WJ, Yancey, AK et al. (2009) Resilience and patterns of health risk behaviors in California adolescents. Prev Med 48, 291297.
116. Rutishauser, IH (2007) Dietary intake measurements. Public Health Nutr 8, 11001107.
117. Miller, TM, Abdel-Maksoud, MF, Crane, L et al. (2008) Effects of social approval bias on self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J 7, 18.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score