Apter, D., Bolton, N. J., Hammond, G. L. & Vihko, R. (1984). Serum sex hormone-binding globulin during puberty in girls and in different types of adolescent menstrual cycles. Acta Endrocrinologica 107, 413–419.
Blair, S. N., Kohl, H. W. III, Paffenbarger, R. S., Clark, D. G., Cooper, K. H. & Gibbons, L. W. (1989). Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. Journal of American Medical Association 262, 2395–2401.
Bongaarts, J. (1980). Does malnutrition affect fecundity? A summary of evidence. Science 208, 560–569.
Boyar, R. M., Katz, J., Finkelstein, J. W., Kapan, S., Weiner, H., Weitzman, E. D. & Hellman, L. (1974). Anorexia nervosa: Immaturity of the 24-hour luteinizing hormone secretory pattern. New England Journal of Medicine 291, 861–865.
Bradlow, H. L., Telang, N. T. & Suto, A. (1992). Modulation of estrogen metabolism in estrogen responsive MCF-7 cell by adipocyte conditioned media. Proceedings of American Association of Cancer Research Program. Abstr. Naples, Florida.
Bulmer, M. G. (1970). The Biology of Twinning in Man. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Campbell, K. L. & Wood, J. W. (1988). Fertility in traditional societies. In Natural Human Fertility. Social and Biological Determinants [Diggory, P., Potts, M. and Teper, S. editors]. London: Macmillan.
Coop, I. E. (1966). Effect of flushing on reproductive performance of ewes. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 67, 305–323.
Crisp, A. H. (1970). Anorexia nervosa: ‘feeding disorder’, ‘nervous malnutrition’, or ‘weight phobia’? World Reviews of Nutrition and Dietetics 12, 452–504.
Cumming, D. C., Vickovic, M. M., Wall, S. R. & Fluker, M. R. (1985). Defects in pulsatile LH release in normally menstruating runners. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 6, 810–812.
Dale, D., Gerlach, D. H. & Wilhite, A. L. (1979). Menstrual dysfunction in distance runners. Obstertrics and Gynecology 54, 47–53.
Darwin, C. (1859). Origin of Species, 1st ed. facsimile, 1975, p. 147. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Darwin, C. (1894). The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication, vol. 2, 2nd ed., pp. 88–99. New York: Appleton.
Eastman, N. J. & Jackson, E. (1968). Weight relationships in pregnancy. I: The bearing of maternal weight gain and pre-pregnancy weight on birth weight in full term pregnancies. Obstertrics and Gynecology Survey 23, 1003–1025.
Edelman, I. S., Haley, H. B., Scholerb, P. R., Sheldon, D. B., Friis-Hansen, B. J., Stoll, G. & Moore, F. D. (1952). Further observations on total body water. I. Normal values throughout the life span. Surgery in Gynecology and Obstetrics 95, 1–12.
Emerson, K. Jr, Saxena, B. N. & Poindexter, E. L. (1972). Caloric cost of normal pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology 40, 786–794.
Feigelman, T., Frisch, R. E., MacBurney, M., Schiff, I. & Wilmore, D. (1987). Sexual maturation in third and fourth decades, after nutritional rehabilitation by internal feeding. Journal of Pediatrics 111, 620–623.
Fishman, J., Boyar, R. M. & Hellman, L. (1975). Influence of body weight on estradiol metabolism in young women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 41, 989–991.
Fitzgerald, M. H. (1992). Is lactation nature's contraceptive? Data from Samoa. Social Biology 39, 55–64.
Food and Agriculture Organization (1957). Calorie Requirements. FAO Bulletin. Rome: FAO.
Friis-Hansen, B. J. (1956). Changes in body water compartments during growth. Acta Paediatrica, Suppl., 110, 1–67.
Friis-Hansen, B. J. (1965). Hydrometry of growth and aging. In Human Body Composition. Symposia of the Society for the Study of Human Biology, vol. 7, pp. 191–209 [Brozek, J. editor]. Oxford: Pergamon.
Frisch, R. E. (1974). Critical weight at menarche, initiation of the adolescent growth spurt, and control of puberty. In Control of the Onset of Puberty, pp. 403–423 [Grumbach, M., Grave, D. and Meyer, F. E. editors]. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Frisch, R. E. (1975). Demographic implications of the biological determinants of female fecundity. Social Biology 22, 17–22.
Frisch, R. E. (1976). Fatness of girls from menarche to age 18 years, with a nomogram. Human Biology 48, 353–359.
Frisch, R. E. (1977). Food intake, fatness and reproductive ability. In Anorexia Nervosa, pp. 146–161 [Vigersky, R. editor]. New York: Raven.
Frisch, R. E. (1978). Population, food intake and fertility. Science 199, 22–30.
Frisch, R. E. (1981). What's below the surface? New England Journal of Medicine 305, 1019–1020.
Frisch, R. E. (1983). Population, nutrition and fecundity. In Malthus Past and Present, pp. 393–404 [Dupaquier, J. editor]. London: Academic Press.
Frisch, R. E. (1984). Body fat, puberty and fertility. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 59, 161–188.
Frisch, R. E. (1985). Fatness, menarche and female fertility. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 28, 611–633.
Frisch, R. E. (1988). Fatness and fertility. Scientific American 258, 88–95.
Frisch, R. E., Canick, J. A. & Tulchinsky, D. (1980 a). Human fatty marrow aromatizes androgen to estrogen. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 51, 394–396.
Frisch, R. E., Hall, G., Aoki, T. T., Birnholz, J., Jacob, R., Landsberg, L., Munro, H., Parkerjones, K., Tulchinsky, D. & Young, J. (1984). Metabolic, endocrine and reproductive changes of a woman Channel swimmer. Metabolism 33, 1106–1111.
Frisch, R. E., Hegsted, D. M. & Yoshinaga, K. (1975). Body weight and food intake at early estrus of rats on high fat diet. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 72, 4172–4176.
Frisch, R. E., Hegsted, D. M., & Yoshinaga, K. (1977). Carcass components at first estrus of rats on high fat and low fat diets: body water, protein, and fat. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 74, 379–383.
Frisch, R. E., & McArthur, J. W. (1974). Menstrual cycles: fatness as a determinant of minimum weight for height necessary for their maintenance or onset. Science 185, 949–951.
Frisch, R. E. & Revelle, R. (1971). Height and weight at menarche and a hypothesis of menarche. Archives of Diseases in Childhood 46, 695–701.
Frisch, R. E., Revelle, R. & Cook, S. (1973). Components of weight at menarche and the initiation of the adolescent growth spurt in girls: Estimated total water, lean body weight and fat. Human Biology 45, 469–483.
Frisch, R. E., Snow, R. C., Gerard, E. L., Johnson, L., Kennedy, D., Barberi, R. & Rosen, B. R. (1992). Magnetic resonance imaging of body fat of athletes compared to controls and the oxidative metabolism of estradiol. Metabolism 41, 191–193.
Frisch, R. E., Snow, R. C., Johnson, L. A., Gerard, B., Barberi, R. & Rosen, B. (1993). Magnetic resonance imaging of overall and regional body fat, estrogen metabolism and ovulation of athletes compared to controls. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 77, 471–477.
Frisch, R. E., Von Gotz-Welbergen, A., McArthur, J. W., Albright, T., Witschi, J., Bullen, B., Burnholz, J., Reed, R. B. & Hermann, H. (1981 a). Proceedings of Annual Meeting of Endocrine Society, Cincinnati, p. 119, Abstr. 147.
Frisch, R. E., Von Gotz-Welbergen, A., McArthur, J. W., Albright, T., Witschi, J., Bullen, B., Burnholz, J., Reed, R. B. & Hermann, H. (1981 b). Delayed menarche and amenorrhoea of college athletes in relation to age of onset of training. Journal of the American Medical Association 246, 1559–1563.
Frisch, R. E., Wyshak, G., Albright, N. L., Albright, T. E. & Schiff, I. (1985). Lower prevalence of breast cancer and cancers of the reproductive system among former college athletes compared to non-athletes. British Journal of Cancer 52, 885–981.
Frisch, R. E., Wyshak, G., Albright, N. L., Albright, T. E. & Schiff, I. (1989). Lower prevalence of non-reproductive system cancers among female former college athletes. Medicine and Science of Sports and Exercise 21, 250–253.
Frisch, R. E., Wyshak, G., Albright, T. E., Albright, N. L. & Schiff, I. (1986). Lower prevalence of diabetes in female former college athletes compared with non-athletes. Diabetes 35, 1101–1105.
Frisch, R. E., Wyshak, G. & Vincent, L. (1980 b). Delayed menarche and amenorrhoea of ballet dancers. New England Journal of Medicine 303, 17–19.
Gerard, E. L., Snow, R. C., Kennedy, D. N., Frisch, R. E., Barberi, R., & Rosen, B. R. (1991). MRI quantification of relative fatness and regional fat distribution in young women. American Journal of Roentgen 157, 99–104.
Green, B. B., Weiss, N. S. & Daling, J. R. (1988). Risk of ovulatory infertility in relation to body weight. Fertility and Sterility 50, 721–725.
Hartz, A. J., Barboriak, P. N., Wong, A., Katayama, K. P. & Rimm, A. A. (1979). The association of obesity with infertility and related menstrual abnormalities in women. International Journal of Obesity 3, 57–73.
Hershcopf, R. J. & Bradlow, H. L. (1987). Obesity, diet, endogenous estrogens, and the risk of hormone-sensitive cancer. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 283–289.
Kaku, M. (1969). Disturbance of sexual function and adipose tissue of obese females. Sanfujinka No Jissai (Tokyo) 18, 212–218.
Kennedy, G. C. (1969). Interactions between feeding behavior and hormones during growth. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences 157, 1049–1061.
Kennedy, G. C. & Mitra, J. (1963). Body weight and food intake as initiation factors for puberty in the rat. Journal of Physiology 166, 408–418.
Keys, A., Brozek, J., Henschel, A., Mickelson, O. & Taylor, H. L. (1950 a). The Biology of Human Starvation, vol. 1, pp. 753–763. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Keys, A., Brozek, J., Henschel, A., Mickelson, O. & Taylor, H. L. (1950 b). The Biology of Human Starvation, vol. 2, pp. 839–840, 850–851. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Longcope, C., Gorbach, S., Goldin, B., Woods, M., Dwyer, J., Morrill, A. & Warram, J. (1987). The effect of a low fat diet on estrogen metabolism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 64, 1246–1250.
Lunn, P. G., Austin, S., Prentice, A. M. & Whitehead, R. G. (1984). The effect of improved nutrition on plasma prolactin concentrations and postpartum infertility in lactating Gambian women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 39, 227–235.
McArthur, J. W., O'Loughlin, K. M., Beitins, I. Z., Johnson, L., Hourihan, J. & Alonso, C. (1976). Endocrine studies during the refeeding of young women with nutritional amenorrhoea and infertility. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 51, 607–615.
MacConnie, S. E., Barkan, A., Lampman, R. M., Schork, M. A. & Beitins, I. Z. (1986). Decreased hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone secretion in male marathon runners. New England Journal of Medicine 315, 411–417.
Malina, R. M., Spirduso, W. W., Tate, C. & Baylor, A. M. (1978). Age at menarche and selected menstrual characteristics in athletes at different competitive levels and in different sports. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 10, 218–222.
Marshall, F. H. A. & Peel, W. R. (1908). ‘Fatness’ as a cause of sterility. Journal of Agricultural Science 3, 383–389.
Martucci, C. P. & Fishman, J. (1979). Impact of continuosly administered catechol estrogens on uterine growth and luteinizing hormone secretion. Endocrinology 105, 1288–1292.
Montague, A. (1979). The Reproductive Development of the Female: A Study in the Comparative Physiology of the Adolescent Organism. Littleton, Mass: PSG Publishing Co.
Moore, F. K., Olesen, H., McMurrey, J. D., Parker, V., Ball, M. R. & Boyden, L. M. (1963). The Body Cell Mass and Its Supporting Environment. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co.
Nillius, S. J. (1983). Weight and the menstural cycle. In Understanding Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia. Report of the Fourth Ross Conference on Medical Research, pp. 77–81. Columbus, Ohio: Ross Laboratories.
Nimrod, A. & Ryan, K. J. (1975). Aromatization of androgens by human abdominal and breast fat tissue. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 40, 367–372.
Pasquali, R., Antenucci, D., Casimirri, F., Venturoli, S., Paradisi, R., Fabbri, R., Balestra, V., Melchionda, N. & Barbara, L. (1989). Clinical and hormonal characteristics of obese amenorrhoeic hyperandrogenic women before and after weight loss. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 68, 173–179.
Perel, E. & Killinger, D. W. (1979). The interconversion and aromatization of androgens by human adipose tissue. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 10, 623–626.
Prior, J. C. (1985). Luteal phase defects and anovulation: Adaptive alterations occurring with conditioning exercise. Seminars on Reproductive Endocrinology 3, 27–33.
Reichlin, S. (1982). Neuroendocrinology. In Textbook of Endocrinology, 6th ed., pp. 588–645. [Williams, R. H. editor]. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co.
Scammon, R. E. (1930). The measurement of the body in childhood. In The Measurement of Man, [Harris, A. J., Jackson, C. M. and Paterson, D. G. editors]. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Schneider, J., Bradlow, H. L., Strain, G., Levin, J., Anderson, K. & Fishman, J. (1983). Effects of obesity on estradiol metabolism: Decreased formation of nonuterotropic metabolites. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 56, 973–978.
Schwartz, B., Cumming, D. C., Riordan, E., Selye, M., Yen, S. S. C. & Rebar, R. W. (1981). Exercise-associated amenorrhoea: A distinct entity? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 141, 662–670.
Siiteri, P. K. (1981). Extraglandular oestrogen formation and serum binding of estradiol: Relationship to cancer. Journal of Endocrinology 89, 119P–129P.
Siiteri, P. K. & MacDonald, P. C. (1973). Role of extraglandular estrogen in human endocrinology. In Handbook of Physiology, section 7, vol. 2, part 1, pp. 615–629 [Geiger, S. R., Astwood, E. B. and Greep, R. O. editors]. New York: American Physiology Society.
Snow, R. C., Barbieri, R. L. & Frisch, R. E. (1989). Estrogen 2-hydroxylase oxidation and menstrual function among elite oarswomen. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 69, 369–376.
Speroff, L., Glass, R. H. & Kase, N. G. (1983). Clinical, Gynecologic Endocrinology and Infertility, 3rd ed., pp. 175–178. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
Strauss, R. H., Lanese, R. R. & Malarkey, W. B. (1985). Weight loss in amateur wrestlers and its effect on serum testosterone levels. Journal of American Medical Association 254, 3337–3338.
Tanner, J. W. (1962). Growth at Adolescence, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell.
Van der Spuy, Z. M., Steer, P. J., Steele, S. J. & Jacobs, H. S. (1988). Outcome of pregnancy in underweight women after spontaneous and induced ovulation. British Medical Journal 296, 962–965.
Van Wagenen, G. (1949). Acclerated growth with sexual precocity in female monkeys receiving testosterone propionate. Endocrinology 45, 544–546.
Vigersky, R. A., Andersen, A. E., Thompson, R. H. & Loriaux, D. L. (1977). Hypothalamic dysfunction in secondary amenorrhoea associated with simple weight loss. New England Journal of Medicine 297, 1141–1145.
Wall, S. R. & Cumming, D. C. (1985). Effects on physical activity on reproductive function and development in males. Seminars in Reproductive Endocrinology 3, 65–80.
Warren, M. (1980). The effects of exercise on pubertal progression and reproductive function in girls. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 51, 1050–1057.
Warren, M. P., Jewelewicz, R., Dyrenfurth, I., Ans, R., Khalaf, S. & van de Weile, R. L. (1975). The significance of weight loss in the evaluation of pituitary response to LHRH in women with secondary amenorrhoea. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 40, 601–611.
Wheeler, G. D., Wall, S. R., Belcastro, A. N. & Cumming, D. C. (1984). Reduced serum testosterone and prolactin levels in male distance runners. Journal of American Medical Association 252, 514–516.
Wyshak, G. & Frisch, R. E. (1982). Evidence for a secular trend in age of menarche. New England Journal of Medicine 306, 1033–1035.
Wyshak, G., Frisch, R. E., Albright, N. L., Albright, T. E. & Schiff, I. (1986). Lower prevalence of benign diseases of the breast and benign tumors of the reproductive system among former college athletes compared to non-athletes. British Journal of Cancer 54, 841–845.
Wyshak, G., Frisch, R. E., Albright, T. E., Albright, N. L. & Schiff, I. (1987). Bone fractures among former college athletes compared with non-athletes in the menopausal and postmenopausal years. Obstetrics and Gynecology 69, 121–126.