This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
JP Bonjour , AL Carrie , S Ferrari , H Clavien , D Slosman , G Theintz & R Rizzoli (1997) Calcium-enriched foods and bone mass growth in prepubertal girls – a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Investigation 99, 1287–1294.
JP Bonjour , T Chevalley , P Ammann , D Slosman & R Rizzoli (2001) Gain in bone mineral mass in prepubertal girls 3–5 years after discontinuation of calcium supplementation: a follow-up study. Lancet 358, 1208–1212.
J Cadogan , R Eastell , N Jones & ME Barker (1997) Milk intake and bone mineral acquisition in adolescent girls – randomised, controlled intervention trial. British Medical Journal 315, 1255–1260.
AL Carriquiry (1999) Assessing the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy. Public Health Nutrition 2, 23–33.
KD Cashman & A Flynn (1999) Optimal nutrition: calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58, 477–487.
MC Chapuy , ME Arlot , PD Delmas & PJ Meunier (1994) Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol treatment for three years on hip fractures in elderly women. British Medical Journal 308, 1081–1082.
MC Chapuy , R Pamphile , E Paris , C Kempf , M Schlichting , S Arnaud , P Garnero & PJ Meunier (2002) Combined calcium and vitamin D 3 supplementation in elderly women: confirmation of reversal of secondary hyperparathyroidism and hip fracture risk: the Decalyos II study. Osteoporosis International 13, 257–264.
T Chevalley , R Rizzoli , V Nydegger , D Slosman , CH Rapin , JP Michel , H Vasey & JP Bonjour (1994) Effects of calcium supplements on femoral bone mineral density and vertebral fracture rate in vitamin-D-replete elderly patients. Osteoporosis International 4, 245–252.
SR Cummings , DM Black , MC Nevitt , W Browner , J Cauley , K Ensrud , HK Genant , L Palermo , J Scott & TM Vogt (1993) Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures. Lancet 341, 72–75.
B Dawson-Hughes , GE Dallal , EA Krall , L Sadowski , N Sahyoun & S Tannenbaum (1990) A controlled trial of the effect of calcium supplementation on bone density in postmenopausal women. New England Journal of Medicine 323, 878–883.
B Dawson-Hughes , SS Harris , EA Krall & GE Dallal (1997) Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone, density in men and women 65 years of age or older. New England Journal of Medicine 337, 670–676.
R Eastell , SP Robins , T Colwell , AM Assiri , BL Riggs & RG Russell (1993) Evaluation of bone turnover in type I osteoporosis using biochemical markers specific for both bone formation and bone resorption. Osteoporosis International 3, 255–260.
PJ Elders , JC Netelenbos , P Lips , FC Van Ginkel , E Khoe , OR Leeuwenkamp , WH Hackeng & PF van der Stelt (1991) Calcium supplementation reduces vertebral bone loss in perimenopausal women: a controlled trial in 248 women between 46 and 55 years of age. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 73, 533–540.
P Garnero , E Hauser , MC Chapuy , C Marcelli , H Grandjean , C Muller , C Cormier , G Breard , PJ Meunier & PD Delmas (1996) Markers of bone turnover predict hip fractures in elderly women. The EPIDOS prospective study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11, 1531–1538.
A Goulding , IE Jones , RW Taylor , SM Williams & PJ Manning (2001) Bone mineral density and body composition in boys with distal forearm fractures: a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry study. Journal of Pediatrics 139, 509–515.
E Hannon , M Kiely , KE Harrington , P Robson , JJ Strain & A Flynn (2001) The North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey: Mineral intakes in 18–64 year old adults. Public Health Nutrition 4, 1081–1088.
M Hansen , K Overgaard , B Riis & C Christiansen (1991) Role of peak bone mass and bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis: 12 year study. British Medical Journal 303, 961–964.
RJ Heikinheimo , JA Inkovaara , EJ Harju , MV Haavisto , RH Kaarela , JM Kataja , AM Kokko , LA Kolho & SA Rajala (1992) Annual injection of vitamin D and fractures of aged bones. Calcified Tissue International 51, 105–110.
CC Johnston Jr, JZ Miller , CW Slemenda , TK Reister , S Hui , JC Christian & M Peacock (1992) Calcium supplementation and increases in bone mineral density in children. New England Journal of Medicine 327, 82–87.
JA Kanis (1991) Calcium requirements for optimal skeletal health in women. Calcified Tissue International 49, S33–S41.
WTK Lee , SSF Leung , DMY Leung , SH Wang , YC Xu , WP Zeng & JCY Cheng (1997) Bone mineral acquisition in low calcium intake children following the withdrawal of calcium supplement. Acta Paediatrica 86, 570–576.
P Lips , WC Graafmans , ME Ooms , PD Bezemer & LM Bouter (1996) Vitamin D supplementation and fracture incidence in elderly persons – a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 124, 400–406.
T Lloyd , MB Andon , N Rollings , JK Martel , JR Landis , LM Demers , DF Eggli , K Kieselhorst & HE Kulin (1993) Calcium supplementation and bone mineral density in adolescent girls. Journal of the American Medical Association 270, 841–844.
T Lloyd , JK Martel , N Rollings , MB Andon , K Kulin , LM Demers , D Eggli , K Kieselhorst & VML Chinchili (1996) The effect of calcium supplementation and Tanner stage on bone density, content and area in teenage women. Osteoporosis International 6, 276–283.
D Marshall , O Johnell & H Wedel (1996) Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fractures. British Medical Journal 312, 1254–1259.
LJ Melton , EA Chrischilles , C Cooper , AW Lane & BL Riggs (1992) How many women have osteoporosis? Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 7, 1005–1010.
BEC Nordin (1997) Calcium and osteoporosis. Nutrition 13, 664–686.
CA Nowson , RM Green , JL Hopper , AJ Sherwin , D Young , B Kaymakci , CS Guest , M Smid , RG Larkins & JD Wark (1997) A co-twin study of the effect of calcium supplementation on bone density during adolescence. Osteoporosis International 7, 219–225.
CV Oleson , BD Busconi & DT Baran (2002) Bone density in competitive figure skaters. Archives of Physical and Medical Rehabilitation 83, 122–128.
AM Parfitt (1984) Age-related structural changes intrabecular and cortical bone: Cellular mechanisms and biomechanical consequences. Calcified Tissue International 36, S123–S128.
A Prentice (1995) Calcium requirements in children. Nutrition Reviews 53, 37–40.
A Prentice (1997) Is nutrition important in osteoporosis?. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 56, 357–367.
A Prentice (2001) The relative contribution of diet and genotype to bone development. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 60, 1–8.
A Prentice & CJ Bates (1993) An appraisal of the adequacy of dietary mineral intakes in developing countries for bone growth and development in children. Nutrition Research Reviews 6, 51–59.
R Prince , A Devine , I Dick , A Criddle , D Kerr , N Kent , R Price & A Randell (1995) The effects of calcium supplementation (milk or tablets) and exercise on bone density in postmenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 10, 1068–1075.
RR Recker , S Hinders , KM Davies , RP Heaney , MR Stegman , JM Lappe & DB Kimmel (1996) Correcting calcium nutritional deficiency prevents spine fractures in elderly women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11, 1961–1966.
IR Reid , RW Ames , MC Evans , GD Gamble & SJ Sharpe (1993) Effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in post-menopausal women. New England Journal of Medicine 328, 460–464.
IR Reid , RW Ames , MC Evans , GD Gamble & SJ Sharpe (1995) Long-term effects of calcium supplementation on bone loss and fractures in postmenopausal women – a randomised controlled trial. American Journal of Medicine 98, 331–335.
BL Riggs , LJ Melton III & WM O'Fallon (1996) Drug therapy for vertebral fractures in osteoporosis: Evidence that decreases in bone turnover and increases in bone mass both determine anti-fracture efficacy. Bone 18, 197S–201S.
BJ Riis (1995) The role of bone loss. American Journal of Medicine 98, Suppl. 2A, 29–32.
JK Scariano , DJ Vanderjagt , T Thacher , CO Isichei , BW Hollis & RH Glew (1998) Calcium supplements increase the serum levels of crosslinked N-telopeptides of bone collagen and parathyroid hormone in rachitic Nigerian children. Clinical Biochemistry 31, 421–427.
C Shortt & A Flynn (1990) Sodium–calcium inter-relationships with specific reference to osteoporosis. Nutrition Research Reviews 3, 101–115.
CW Slemenda , M Peacock , S Hui , L Zhou & CC Johnston (1997) Reduced rates of skeletal remodeling are associated with increased peak bone mineral density during the development of peak skeletal mass. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 12, 676–682.
BL Specker , A Beck , H Kalkwarf & M Ho (1997) Randomized trial of varying mineral intake on total body bone mineral accretion during the first year of life. Pediatrics 99, E121–E127.
World Health Organization (1999) Interim report and recommendations of the World Health Organization Task Force for Osteoporosis. Osteoporosis International 10, 259–264.