Astrup, A, Buemann, B, Gluud, C, Bennett, P, Tjur, T & Christensen, N (1995) Prognostic markers for diet-induced weight loss in obese women. International Journal of Obesity 19, 275–278.
Berneis, K, Ninnis, R, & Keller, U (1997) Ethanol exerts acute protein-sparing effects during postabsorptive but not during anabolic conditions in man. Metabolism 46, 750–755.
Camargo, CA, Vranizan, KM, Dreon, DM, Frey-Hewitt, B & Wood, PD (1987) Alcohol, calorie intake, and adiposity in overweight men. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 6, 271–278.
De Feo, P, Volpi, E, Lucidi, P, Cruciani, G, Monacchia, F, Reboldi, G, Santeusanio, F, Bolli, GB & Brunetti, P (1995) Ethanol impairs post-prandial hepatic protein metabolism. Journal of Clinical Investigation 95, 1472–1479.
Delarue, J, Schneiter, P, Henry, S, Cayeux, C, Jéquier, E & Tappy, L (1997) Effects of adrenergic blockade on hepatic glucose production during ethanol administration. Clinical Physiology 17, 509–521.
Foltin, RW, Kelly, TH & Fischman, MW (1993) Ethanol as an energy source in humans: comparison with dextrose-containing beverages. Appetite 20, 95–110.
Frayn, KN & Whitley, HA (1997) Carbohydrate and fat balance: separate existences or an intimate relationship? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 789.
Hellerstein, MK (1999) De novo lipogenesis in humans: metabolic and regulatory aspects. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, S53–S65.
James, WPT & Ralph, A (2000) Alcohol: its metabolism and effects. In Human Nutrition and Dietetics, pp. 121–135 [Garrow, JS, James, WPT and Ralph, A, editors]. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
Lands, WE & Zakhari, S (1991) The case of the missing calories. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 47–48.
Lieber, CS (1991) Perspectives: do alcohol calories count? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 976–982.
Lieber, CS (1993) A personal perspective on alcohol, nutrition, and the liver. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58, 430–442.
McCrory, MA, Fuss, PJ, Saltzman, E & Roberts, SB (2000) Dietary determinants of energy intake and weight regulation in healthy adults. Journal of Nutrition 130, 276S–279S.
MacDonald, JT & Margen, S (1976) Wine versus ethanol in human nutrition 1. Nitrogen and calorie balance. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 29, 1093–1103.
Meyer, R, Suter, PM & Vetter, W (1999) Alcohol-risk factor for overweight. Schweizerische Rundschau für Medizin Praxis 88, 1555–1561.
Muller, MJ (1999) Alcohol and body weight. Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie 37, 33–43.
Murgatroyd, PR, Van de Ven, ML, Goldberg, GR & Prentice, AM (1996) Alcohol and the regulation of energy balance: overnight effects on diet-induced thermogenesis and fuel storage. British Journal of Nutrition 75, 33–45.
Poppitt, SD, Eckhardt, JW, McGonagble, J, Murgatroyd, PR & Prentice, A (1996) Short-term effects of alcohol consumption on appetite and energy intake. Physiology and Behavior 60, 1063–1070.
Razay, G, Heaton, KW, Bolton, CH & Hughes, AO (1992) Alcohol consumption and its relation to cardiovascular risk factors in British women. British Medical Journal 304, 80–83.
Rosenberg, K & Durnin, JV (1978) The effect of alcohol on resting metabolic rate. British Journal of Nutrition 40, 293–298.
Schutz, Y (1995) Alcohol calories count the same as other calories. International Journal of Obesity 19, Suppl. 2, 12–13.
Schutz, Y (1999) Does the conversion of carbohydrate to fat contribute to obesity in humans? Obesity Matters 2, 18–22.
Shelmet, JJ, Reichard, GA, Skutches, CL, Hoeldtke, RD, Owen, OE & Boden, G (1988) Ethanol causes acute inhibition of carbohydrate, fat, and protein oxidation and insulin resistance. Journal of Clinical Investigation 81, 1137–1145.
Siler, SQ, Neese, RA & Hellerstein, MK (1999) De novo lipogenesis, lipid kinetics, and whole-body lipid balances in humans after acute alcohol consumption. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70, 928–936.
Sonko, BJ, Prentice, AM, Murgatroyd, PR, Goldberg, GR, Van de Ven, ML & Coward, WA (1994) Effect of alcohol on postmeal fat storage. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, 619–625.
Suter, PM, Hasler, E & Vetter, W (1997) Effects of alcohol on energy metabolism and body weight regulation: is alcohol a risk factor for obesity? Nutrition Reviews 55, 157–171.
Suter, PM, Jéquier, E & Schutz, Y (1994) Effect of ethanol on energy expenditure. American Journal of Physiology 266, R1204–R1212.
Suter, PM, Schutz, Y & Jéquier, E (1992) The effect of ethanol on fat storage in healthy subjects. New England Journal of Medicine 326, 983–987.
Thomson, M, Fulton, M, Elton, RA, Brown, S, Wood, DA & Olivier, F (1988) Alcohol consumption and nutritient intake in middle-aged Scottish men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47, 139–145.
Tremblay, A (1999) The effects of exercise and alcohol intake on energy balance and food intake. In Progress in Obesity Research, pp. 423–429 [Ailhaud, BG, editor]. London: John Libbey & Company Ltd.
Tremblay, A, Buemann, B, Thériault, G & Bouchard, C (1995) Body fatness in active individuals reporting low lipid and alcohol intake. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 824–831.
Volpi, E, Lucidi, P, Cruciani, G, Monacchia, F, Santoni, S, Reboldi, G, Brunetti, P, Bolli, GB & De Feo, P (1998) Moderate and large doses of ethanol differentially affect hepatic protein metabolism in humans. Journal of Nutrition 128, 198–203.
Westerterp, KR (1995) Alcohol calories do not count the same as other calories. International Journal of Obesity 19, Suppl. 2, 14–15.
Westerterp, KR, Prentice, AM & Jéguier, E (1999) Alcohol and body weight. In Health Issues Related to Alcohol Consumption, pp. 103–123 [Macdonald, I, editor]. Oxford: Blackwell Press.
Westerterp-Plantenga, MS & Verwegen, CR (1999) The appetizing effect of an aperitif in overweight and normal-weight humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69, 205–212.
Weststrate, JA, Wunnink, I, Deurenberg, P & Hautvast, JG (1990) Alcohol and its acute effects on resting metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis. British Journal of Nutrition 64, 413–425.