Treatments to induce weight loss for the obese patient centre on the achievement of negative energy balance. This objective can theoretically be attained by interventions designed to achieve a reduction in energy intake and/or an increase in energy expenditure. Such ‘lifestyle interventions’ usually comprise one or more of the following strategies: dietary modification; behaviour change; increases in physical activity. These interventions are advocated as first treatment steps in algorithms recommended by current clinical obesity guidelines. Medication and surgical treatments are potentially available to those unable to implement ‘lifestyle interventions’ effectively by achieving losses of between 5 kg and 10 kg. It is accepted that the minimum of 5% weight loss is required to achieve clinically-meaningful benefits. Dietary treatments differ widely. Successful weight loss is most often associated with quantification of energy intake rather than macronutrient composition. Most dietary intervention studies secure a weight loss of between 5 kg and 10 kg after intervention for 6 months, with gradual weight regain at 1 year where weight changes are 3–4 kg below the starting weight. Some dietary interventions when evaluated at 2 and 4 years post intervention report the effects of weight maintenance rather than weight loss. Specific anti-obesity medications are effective adjuncts to weight loss, in most cases doubling the weight loss of those given dietary advice only. Greater physical activity alone increases energy expenditure by insufficient amounts to facilitate clinically-important weight losses, but is useful for weight maintenance. Weight losses of between half and three-quarters of excess body weight are seen at 10 years post intervention with bariatric surgery, making this arguably the most effective weight-loss treatment.
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