Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 20
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    da Silva, E. P. Nachbar, R. T. Levada-Pires, A. C. Hirabara, S. M. and Lambertucci, R. H. 2016. Omega-3 fatty acids differentially modulate enzymatic anti-oxidant systems in skeletal muscle cells. Cell Stress and Chaperones, Vol. 21, Issue. 1, p. 87.

    Domingo, José L. 2016. Nutrients and Chemical Pollutants in Fish and Shellfish. Balancing Health Benefits and Risks of Regular Fish Consumption. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Vol. 56, Issue. 6, p. 979.

    Gessner, D. K. Gröne, B. Rosenbaum, S. Most, E. Hillen, S. Becker, S. Erhardt, G. Reiner, G. and Eder, K. 2016. Effect of dietary fish oil on the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle of lactating sows. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Vol. 100, Issue. 2, p. 337.

    Lin, Chenchen Rajalahti, Tarja Mjøs, Svein Are and Kvalheim, Olav Martin 2016. Predictive associations between serum fatty acids and lipoproteins in healthy non-obese Norwegians: implications for cardiovascular health. Metabolomics, Vol. 12, Issue. 1,

    Rajalahti, Tarja Lin, Chenchen Mjøs, Svein Are and Kvalheim, Olav Martin 2016. Changes in serum fatty acid and lipoprotein subclass concentrations from prepuberty to adulthood and during aging. Metabolomics, Vol. 12, Issue. 3,

    Shen, Kuo-Ping Hao, Chi-Long Yen, Hsueh-Wei Chen, Chun-Yen Chen, Jia-Hao Chen, Fu-Chih and Lin, Hui-Li 2016. Pre-germinated brown rice prevented high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia through ameliorating lipid synthesis and metabolism in C57BL/6J mice. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, Vol. 59, Issue. 1, p. 39.

    Sperling, Laurence S. and Nelson, John R. 2016. History and future of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. Current Medical Research and Opinion, Vol. 32, Issue. 2, p. 301.

    Ciesielska, Anna and Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna 2015. Modification of pro-inflammatory signaling by dietary components: The plasma membrane as a target. BioEssays, Vol. 37, Issue. 7, p. 789.

    Fosshaug, Linn E. Dahl, Christen P. Risnes, Ivar Bohov, Pavol Berge, Rolf K. Nymo, Ståle Geiran, Odd Yndestad, Arne Gullestad, Lars Aukrust, Pål Vinge, Leif E. and Øie, Erik 2015. Altered Levels of Fatty Acids and Inflammatory and Metabolic Mediators in Epicardial Adipose Tissue in Patients With Systolic Heart Failure. Journal of Cardiac Failure, Vol. 21, Issue. 11, p. 916.

    Honda, Kaori L. Lamon-Fava, Stefania Matthan, Nirupa R. Wu, Dayong and Lichtenstein, Alice H. 2015. EPA and DHA Exposure Alters the Inflammatory Response but not the Surface Expression of Toll-like Receptor 4 in Macrophages. Lipids, Vol. 50, Issue. 2, p. 121.

    Yagi, Shusuke Aihara, Ken-ichi Fukuda, Daiju Takashima, Akira Hara, Tomoya Hotchi, Junko Ise, Takayuki Yamaguchi, Koji Tobiume, Takeshi Iwase, Takashi Yamada, Hirotsugu Soeki, Takeshi Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo Shimabukuro, Michio Akaike, Masashi and Sata, Masataka 2015. Effects of Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Endothelial Function in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease. Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, Vol. 22, Issue. 5, p. 447.

    Burns-Whitmore, Bonny Haddad, Ella Sabaté, Joan and Rajaram, Sujatha 2014. Effects of supplementing n-3 fatty acid enriched eggs and walnuts on cardiovascular disease risk markers in healthy free-living lacto-ovo-vegetarians: a randomized, crossover, free-living intervention study. Nutrition Journal, Vol. 13, Issue. 1,

    Dunbar, B.S. Bosire, R.V. and Deckelbaum, R.J. 2014. Omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids in human and animal health: An African perspective. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Vol. 398, Issue. 1-2, p. 69.

    Jacobson, Terry A 2014. Perspectives on a new prescription omega-3 fatty acid, icosapent ethyl, for hypertriglyceridemia. Clinical Lipidology, Vol. 9, Issue. 2, p. 149.

    Kitessa, Soressa Abeywardena, Mahinda Wijesundera, Chakra and Nichols, Peter 2014. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils. Nutrients, Vol. 6, Issue. 5, p. 2035.

    Ansorena, D. and Astiasarán, I. 2013. Functional Ingredients from Algae for Foods and Nutraceuticals.

    Garneau, Véronique Rudkowska, Iwona Paradis, Ann-Marie Godin, Gaston Julien, Pierre Pérusse, Louis and Vohl, Marie-Claude 2013. Association between plasma omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Vol. 38, Issue. 3, p. 243.

    Marangoni, Franca and Poli, Andrea 2013. Clinical pharmacology of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: non-lipidic metabolic and hemodynamic effects in human patients. Atherosclerosis Supplements, Vol. 14, Issue. 2, p. 230.

    Nicholson, Tiffany Khademi, Haidar and Moghadasian, Mohammed H. 2013. The role of marine n-3 fatty acids in improving cardiovascular health: a review. Food & Function, Vol. 4, Issue. 3, p. 357.

    Ma, Yonggang Lindsey, Merry L and Halade, Ganesh V 2012. DHA derivatives of fish oil as dietary supplements: a nutrition-based drug discovery approach for therapies to prevent metabolic cardiotoxicity. Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery, Vol. 7, Issue. 8, p. 711.


Similarities and differences between the effects of EPA and DHA on markers of atherosclerosis in human subjects*

  • Darshan S. Kelley (a1) and Yuriko Adkins (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 28 February 2012

We have reviewed effects of long chain (LC) n-3 PUFA on markers of atherosclerosis in human subjects with a focus on individual effects of EPA and DHA. Initial results from epidemiological studies suggested that LC n-3 PUFA from fish oils (FO) reduced incidence of CVD; those results have been confirmed in interventional studies. Dietary intervention with n-3 PUFA decreased fasting and postprandial TAG, number of remnant-like chylomicron particles, large VLDL, and total and small dense LDL particles. It increased mean size of LDL particles by increasing number of large and decreasing those of small dense particles. With some exceptions, n-3 PUFA decreased blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers. n-3 PUFA also decreased circulating adhesion molecules and intima-media thickness (IMT) in some but not other studies. For IMT, results varied with the sex and artery being examined. EPA effects on FMD are endothelial cell dependent, while those of DHA seem to be endothelial cell independent. Individually, both EPA and DHA decreased TAG and inflammatory markers, but only DHA decreased HR, BP and number of small dense LDL particles. Results varied because of dose and duration of n-3 PUFA, EPA:DHA, health status of subjects and other reasons. Future studies are needed to determine optimal doses of EPA and DHA individually, their synergistic, additive or antagonistic effects, and to understand underlying mechanisms. In conclusion, n-3 PUFA decreased several risk factors for atherosclerosis without any serious adverse effects.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Similarities and differences between the effects of EPA and DHA on markers of atherosclerosis in human subjects*
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Similarities and differences between the effects of EPA and DHA on markers of atherosclerosis in human subjects*
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Similarities and differences between the effects of EPA and DHA on markers of atherosclerosis in human subjects*
      Available formats
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: Dr Darshan S. Kelley, fax +1 530 752 5271, email
Hide All

Reference to a company or product name does not imply approval or recommendation of the product by the US Department of Agriculture to the exclusion of others that may be suitable. US Department of Agriculture is an equal opportunity employer.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.DJ Rader & A Daugherty (2008) Translating molecular discoveries into new therapies for atherosclerosis. Nature 451, 904913.

4.J Sanz & ZA Fayad (2008) Imaging of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Nature 451, 953957.

5.RA van Dijk , R Virmani , JH von der Thusen (2010) The natural history of aortic atherosclerosis: a systematic histopathological evaluation of the peri-renal region. Atherosclerosis 210, 100106.

6.J Danesh , JG Wheeler , GM Hirschfield (2004) C-reactive protein and other circulating markers of inflammation in the prediction of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 350, 13871397.

10.A Menotti , D Kromhout , H Blackburn (1999) Food intake patterns and 25-year mortality from coronary heart disease: cross-cultural correlations in the Seven Countries Study. The Seven Countries Study Research Group. Eur J Epidemiol 15, 507515.

12.KW Lee & GY Lip (2003) The role of omega-3 fatty acids in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Q J Med 96, 465480.

13.TA Dolecek (1992) Epidemiological evidence of relationships between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and mortality in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 200, 177182.

14.CM Albert , H Campos , MJ Stampfer (2002) Blood levels of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and the risk of sudden death. N Engl J Med 346, 11131118.

15.FB Hu , L Bronner , WC Willett (2002) Fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women. JAMA 287, 18151821.

17.WS Harris (2007) Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: a case for omega-3 index as a new risk factor. Pharmacol Res 55, 217223.

18.TL Psota , SK Gebauer & P Kris-Etherton (2006) Dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk. Am J Cardiol 98, 3i–18i.

19.PE Marik & J Varon (2009) Omega-3 dietary supplements and the risk of cardiovascular events: a systematic review. Clin Cardiol 32, 365372.

20.GL Russo (2009) Dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: from biochemistry to clinical implications in cardiovascular prevention. Biochem Pharmacol 77, 937946.

22.G Rocquelin , L Guenot , E Justrabo (1985) Fatty acid composition of human heart phospholipids: data from 53 biopsy specimens. J Mol Cell Cardiol 17, 769773.

23.DS Kelley , GL Bartolini , JW Newman (2006) Fatty acid composition of liver, adipose tissue, spleen, and heart of mice fed diets containing t10, c12-, and c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 74, 331338.

24.J Cao , KA Schwichtenberg , NQ Hanson (2006) Incorporation and clearance of omega-3 fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes and plasma phospholipids. Clin Chem 52, 22652272.

26.JT Brenna , N Salem Jr, AJ Sinclair (2009) Alpha-Linolenic acid supplementation and conversion to n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 80, 8591.

27.BJ Holub (2009) Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 81, 199204.

28.AS Ryan , MA Keske , JP Hoffman (2009) Clinical overview of algal-docosahexaenoic acid: effects on triglyceride levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. Am J Ther 16, 183192.

29.AC Skulas-Ray , PM Kris-Etherton , WS Harris (2011) Dose-response effects of omega-3 fatty acids on triglycerides, inflammation, and endothelial function in healthy persons with moderate hypertriglyceridemia. Am J Clin Nutr 93, 243252.

32.GS Rambjor , AI Walen , SL Windsor (1996) Eicosapentaenoic acid is primarily responsible for hypotriglyceridemic effect of fish oil in humans. Lipids 31, Suppl., S45S49.

33.JB Hansen , S Grimsgaard , H Nilsen (1998) Effects of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on fatty acid absorption, incorporation into serum phospholipids and postprandial triglyceridemia. Lipids 33, 131138.

36.L Calabresi , D Donati , F Pazzucconi (2000) Omacor in familial combined hyperlipidemia: effects on lipids and low density lipoprotein subclasses. Atherosclerosis 148, 387396.

37.TR Thomas , BK Smith , OM Donahue (2004) Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation and exercise on low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein subfractions. Metabolism 53, 749754.

39.IL Mostad , KS Bjerve , S Lydersen (2008) Effects of marine n-3 fatty acid supplementation on lipoprotein subclasses measured by nuclear magnetic resonance in subjects with type II diabetes. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 419429.

40.S Egert , F Kannenberg , V Somoza (2009) Dietary alpha-linolenic acid, EPA, and DHA have differential effects on LDL fatty acid composition but similar effects on serum lipid profiles in normolipidemic humans. J Nutr 139, 861868.

41.RJ Woodman , TA Mori , V Burke (2003) Docosahexaenoic acid but not eicosapentaenoic acid increases LDL particle size in treated hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 26, 253.

43.MM Engler , MB Engler , MJ Malloy (2005) Effect of docosahexaenoic acid on lipoprotein subclasses in hyperlipidemic children (the EARLY study). Am J Cardiol 95, 869871.

45.LM Neff , J Culiner , S Cunningham-Rundles (2011) Algal docosahexaenoic acid affects plasma lipoprotein particle size distribution in overweight and obese adults. J Nutr 141, 207213.

47.K Nakajima , T Nakano & A Tanaka (2006) The oxidative modification hypothesis of atherosclerosis: the comparison of atherogenic effects on oxidized LDL and remnant lipoproteins in plasma. Clin Chim Acta 367, 3647.

48.K Hamazaki , M Itomura , M Huan (2003) n-3 Long-chain FA decrease serum levels of TG and remnant-like particle-cholesterol in humans. Lipids 38, 353358.

51.MM Engler , MB Engler , M Malloy (2004) Docosahexaenoic acid restores endothelial function in children with hyperlipidemia: results from the EARLY study. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 42, 672679.

53.T Okumura , Y Fujioka , S Morimoto (2002) Eicosapentaenoic acid improves endothelial function in hypertriglyceridemic subjects despite increased lipid oxidizability. Am J Med Sci 324, 247253.

54.A Sekikawa , JD Curb , H Ueshima (2008) Marine-derived n-3 fatty acids and atherosclerosis in Japanese, Japanese–American, and white men: a cross-sectional study. J Am Coll Cardiol 52, 417424.

55.FM Sacks , PH Stone , CM Gibson (1995) Controlled trial of fish oil for regression of human coronary atherosclerosis. HARP Research Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 25, 14921498.

56.C von Schacky , P Angerer , W Kothny (1999) The effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acids on coronary atherosclerosis. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 130, 554562.

57.P Angerer , W Kothny , S Stork (2002) Effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids on progression of atherosclerosis in carotid arteries. Cardiovasc Res 54, 183190.

58.JS Anderson , JA Nettleton , DM Herrington (2010) Relation of omega-3 fatty acid and dietary fish intake with brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 12041213.

60.AT Erkkila , NR Matthan , DM Herrington (2006) Higher plasma docosahexaenoic acid is associated with reduced progression of coronary atherosclerosis in women with CAD. J Lipid Res 47, 28142819.

61.Y Abe , B El-Masri , KT Kimball (1998) Soluble cell adhesion molecules in hypertriglyceridemia and potential significance on monocyte adhesion. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 18, 723731.

62.S Nomura , S Kanazawa & S Fukuhara (2003) Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on platelet activation markers and cell adhesion molecules in hyperlipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Complications 17, 153159.

63.O Eschen , JH Christensen , R De Caterina (2004) Soluble adhesion molecules in healthy subjects: a dose-response study using n-3 fatty acids. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 14, 180185.

64.F Thies , JM Garry , P Yaqoob (2003) Association of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with stability of atherosclerotic plaques: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 361, 477485.

65.DS Kelley , D Siegel , DM Fedor (2009) DHA supplementation decreases serum C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in hypertriglyceridemic men. J Nutr 139, 495501.

67.AL Cawood , R Ding , FL Napper (2010) Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from highly concentrated n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters is incorporated into advanced atherosclerotic plaques and higher plaque EPA is associated with decreased plaque inflammation and increased stability. Atherosclerosis 212, 252259.

68.AF Cicero , S Ertek & C Borghi (2009) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: their potential role in blood pressure prevention and management. Curr Vasc Pharmacol 7, 330337.

69.TA Mori & RJ Woodman (2006) The independent effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on cardiovascular risk factors in humans. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 9, 95–104.

70.TA Mori , DQ Bao , V Burke (1999) Docosahexaenoic acid but not eicosapentaenoic acid lowers ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate in humans. Hypertension 34, 253260.

72.DD Keller , S Jurgilas & B Perry (2007) Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) lowers triglyceride levels and improves low density lipoprotein particle size in a statin-treated cardiac risk population. J Clin Lipidol 1, 151.

78.PC Calder (2009) Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory processes: new twists in an old tale. Biochimie 91, 791795.

79.PM Ridker (2003) Clinical application of C-reactive protein for cardiovascular disease detection and prevention. Circulation 107, 363369.

80.ML Daviglus , J Stamler , AJ Orencia (1997) Fish consumption and the 30-year risk of fatal myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 336, 10461053.

81.J Zhang , S Sasaki , K Amano (1999) Fish consumption and mortality from all causes, ischemic heart disease, and stroke: an ecological study. Prev Med 28, 520529.

82.A Zampelas , DB Panagiotakos , C Pitsavos (2005) Fish consumption among healthy adults is associated with decreased levels of inflammatory markers related to cardiovascular disease: the ATTICA study. J Am Coll Cardiol 46, 120124.

84.K Murakami , S Sasaki , Y Takahashi (2008) Total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake is inversely associated with serum C-reactive protein in young Japanese women. Nutr Res 28, 309314.

85.T Madsen , HA Skou , VE Hansen (2001) C-reactive protein, dietary n-3 fatty acids, and the extent of coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 88, 11391142.

86.T Pischon , SE Hankinson , GS Hotamisligil (2003) Habitual dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in relation to inflammatory markers among US men and women. Circulation 108, 155160.

89.L Ferrucci , A Cherubini , S Bandinelli (2006) Relationship of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids to circulating inflammatory markers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91, 439446.

90.DS Kelley , PC Taylor , GJ Nelson (1998) Dietary docosahexaenoic acid and immunocompetence in young healthy men. Lipids 33, 559566.

91.F Thies , EA Miles , G Nebe-von-Caron (2001) Influence of dietary supplementation with long-chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood inflammatory cell populations and functions and on plasma soluble adhesion molecules in healthy adults. Lipids 36, 11831193.

93.TA Mori , RJ Woodman , V Burke (2003) Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in treated-hypertensive type 2 diabetic subjects. Free Radical Biol Med 35, 772781.

94.DS Kelley , PC Taylor , GJ Nelson (1999) Docosahexaenoic acid ingestion inhibits natural killer cell activity and production of inflammatory mediators in young healthy men. Lipids 34, 317324.

96.HM Yusof , EA Miles & P Calder (2008) Influence of very long-chain n-3 fatty acids on plasma markers of inflammation in middle-aged men. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 78, 219228.

97.S Sierra , F Lara-Villoslada , M Comalada (2008) Dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid equally incorporate as decosahexaenoic acid but differ in inflammatory effects. Nutrition 24, 245254.

98.J Kaikkonen , TP Tuomainen , K Nyyssonen (2004) C18 hydroxy fatty acids as markers of lipid peroxidation ex vivo and in vivo. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 64, 457468.

99.G Spiteller (2005) The relation of lipid peroxidation processes with atherogenesis: a new theory on atherogenesis. Mol Nutr Food Res 49, 999–1013.

100.Y Yoshida & E Niki (2006) Bio-markers of lipid peroxidation in vivo: hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid and hydroxycholesterol. Biofactors 27, 195202.

101.G Spiteller (2007) The important role of lipid peroxidation processes in aging and age dependent diseases. Mol Biotechnol 37, 5–12.

102.G Leonarduzzi , MC Arkan , H Basaga (2000) Lipid oxidation products in cell signaling. Free Radical Biol Med 28, 13701378.

103.DG Tang , E La , J Kern (2002) Fatty acid oxidation and signaling in apoptosis. Biol Chem 383, 425442.

104.E Niki , Y Yoshida , Y Saito (2005) Lipid peroxidation: mechanisms, inhibition, and biological effects. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 338, 668676.

105.Y Yoshida , Y Saito , M Hayakawa (2007) Levels of lipid peroxidation in human plasma and erythrocytes: comparison between fatty acids and cholesterol. Lipids 42, 439449.

106.D Harats , Y Dabach , G Hollander (1991) Fish oil ingestion in smokers and nonsmokers enhances peroxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Atherosclerosis 90, 127139.

109.S Egert , V Somoza , F Kannenberg (2007) Influence of three rapeseed oil-rich diets, fortified with alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid on the composition and oxidizability of low-density lipoproteins: results of a controlled study in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 314325.

110.D Parra , NM Bandarra , M Kiely (2007) Impact of fish intake on oxidative stress when included into a moderate energy-restricted program to treat obesity. Eur J Nutr 46, 460467.

111.C Calzada , R Colas , N Guillot (2010) Subgram daily supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid protects low-density lipoproteins from oxidation in healthy men. Atherosclerosis 208, 467472.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *