Skip to main content
×
Home

The science of muscle hypertrophy: making dietary protein count

  • Stuart M. Phillips (a1)
Abstract

Growing evidence supports the conclusion that consumption of protein in close temporal proximity to the performance of resistance exercise promotes greater muscular hypertrophy. We can also state with good certainty that merely consuming energy, as carbohydrate for example, is also not sufficient to maximise muscle protein synthesis leading to anabolism and net new muscle protein accretion. Recent work also indicates that certain types of proteins, particular those that are rapidly digested and high in leucine content (i.e. whey protein), appear to be more efficient at stimulating muscle protein synthesis. Continued practice of consumption of these types or proteins after exercise should lead to greater hypertrophy. Reviews of numerous training studies indicate that studies in which milk proteins and principally whey protein show an advantage of these proteins over and above isoenergetic carbohydrate and soya protein in promoting hypertrophy. Thus, the combined evidence suggests a strategic advantage of practising early post-exercise consumption of whey protein or dairy-based protein to promote muscle protein synthesis, net muscle protein accretion and ultimately hypertrophy.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The science of muscle hypertrophy: making dietary protein count
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The science of muscle hypertrophy: making dietary protein count
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The science of muscle hypertrophy: making dietary protein count
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: Professor S. M. Phillips, fax +1-905-523-6011, email phillis@mcmaster.ca
References
Hide All
1.Burd NA, Tang JE, Moore DR et al. (2009) Exercise training and protein metabolism: influences of contraction, protein intake, and sex-based differences. J Appl Physiol 106, 16921701.
2.Phillips SM (2004) Protein requirements and supplementation in strength sports. Nutrition 20, 689695.
3.Rennie MJ, Wackerhage H, Spangenburg EE et al. (2004) Control of the size of the human muscle mass. Annu Rev Physiol 66, 799828.
4.Evans WJ (1996) Reversing sarcopenia: how weight training can build strength and vitality. Geriatrics 51, 46–43.
5.Paddon-Jones D & Rasmussen BB (2009) Dietary protein recommendations and the prevention of sarcopenia. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 12, 8690.
6.Biolo G, Maggi SP, Williams BD et al. (1995) Increased rates of muscle protein turnover and amino acid transport after resistance exercise in humans. Am J Physiol 268, E514E520.
7.Phillips SM, Tipton KD, Aarsland A et al. (1997) Mixed muscle protein synthesis and breakdown after resistance exercise in humans. Am J Physiol 273, E99–E107.
8.Phillips SM, Tipton KD, Ferrando AA et al. (1999) Resistance training reduces the acute exercise-induced increase in muscle protein turnover. Am J Physiol 276, E118E124.
9.Moore DR, Tang JE, Burd NA et al. (2009) Differential stimulation of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis with protein ingestion at rest and after resistance exercise. J Physiol 597, 897904.
10.Moore DR, Phillips SM, Babraj JA et al. (2005) Myofibrillar and collagen protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle in young men after maximal shortening and lengthening contractions. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288, E1153E1159.
11.Biolo G, Tipton KD, Klein S et al. (1997) An abundant supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise on muscle protein. Am J Physiol 273, E122E129.
12.Wilkinson SB, Tarnopolsky MA, MacDonald MJ et al. (2007) Consumption of fluid skim milk promotes greater muscle protein accretion following resistance exercise than an isonitrogenous and isoenergetic soy protein beverage. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 10311040.
13.Hartman JW, Tang JE, Wilkinson SB et al. (2007) Consumption of fat-free fluid milk after resistance exercise promotes greater lean mass accretion than does consumption of soy or carbohydrate in young, novice, male weightlifters. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 373381.
14.de Boer MD, Maganaris CN, Seynnes OR et al. (2007) Time course of muscular, neural and tendinous adaptations to 23 day unilateral lower-limb suspension in young men. J Physiol 583, 10791091.
15.Glover EI, Phillips SM, Oates BR et al. (2009) Immobilization induces anabolic resistance in human myofibrillar protein synthesis with low and high dose amino acid infusion. J Physiol 586, 60496061.
16.Phillips SM, Glover EI & Rennie MJ (2009) Alterations of protein turnover underlying disuse atrophy in human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 107, 643654.
17.Tipton KD, Ferrando AA, Phillips SM et al. (1999) Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from orally administered amino acids. Am J Physiol 276, E628E634.
18.Tipton KD, Elliott TA, Cree MG et al. (2006) Stimulation of net muscle protein synthesis by whey protein ingestion before and after exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 292, E71E76.
19.Fujita S, Dreyer HC, Drummond MJ et al. (2009) Essential amino acid and carbohydrate ingestion before resistance exercise does not enhance postexercise muscle protein synthesis. J Appl Physiol 106, 17301739.
20.Tipton KD, Rasmussen BB, Miller SL et al. (2001) Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 281, E197E206.
21.Bolster DR, Crozier SJ, Kimball SR et al. (2002) AMP-activated protein kinase suppresses protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle through down-regulated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. J Biol Chem 277, 2397723980.
22.Rose AJ, Alsted TJ, Jensen TE et al. (2009) A Ca(2+)-calmodulin-eEF2K-eEF2 signalling cascade, but not AMPK, contributes to the suppression of skeletal muscle protein synthesis during contractions. J Physiol 587, 15471563.
23.Beelen M, Koopman R, Gijsen AP et al. (2008) Protein coingestion stimulates muscle protein synthesis during resistance-type exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295, E70E77.
24.Moore DR, Robinson MJ, Fry JL et al. (2009) Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 161168.
25.Volpi E, Kobayashi H, Sheffield-Moore M et al. (2003) Essential amino acids are primarily responsible for the amino acid stimulation of muscle protein anabolism in healthy elderly adults. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 250258.
26.Crozier SJ, Kimball SR, Emmert SW et al. (2005) Oral leucine administration stimulates protein synthesis in rat skeletal muscle. J Nutr 135, 376382.
27.Anthony JC, Reiter AK, Anthony TG et al. (2002) Orally administered leucine enhances protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats in the absence of increases in 4E-BP1 or S6K1 phosphorylation. Diabetes 51, 928936.
28.Greenhaff PL, Karagounis L, Peirce N et al. (2008) Disassociation between the effects of amino acids and insulin on signalling, ubiquitin-ligases and protein turnover in human muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295, E595E604.
29.Lacroix M, Bos C, Leonil J et al. (2006) Compared with casein or total milk protein, digestion of milk soluble proteins is too rapid to sustain the anabolic postprandial amino acid requirement. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 10701079.
30.Fouillet H, Mariotti F, Gaudichon C et al. (2002) Peripheral and splanchnic metabolism of dietary nitrogen are differently affected by the protein source in humans as assessed by compartmental modeling. J Nutr 132, 125133.
31.Bos C, Metges CC, Gaudichon C et al. (2003) Postprandial kinetics of dietary amino acids are the main determinant of their metabolism after soy or milk protein ingestion in humans. J Nutr 133, 13081315.
32.Tang JE, Moore DR, Kujbida GW et al. (2009) Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men. J Appl Physiol 107, 987992.
33.Koopman R, Verdijk L, Manders RJ et al. (2006) Co-ingestion of protein and leucine stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates to the same extent in young and elderly lean men. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 623632.
34.Katsanos CS, Kobayashi H, Sheffield-Moore M et al. (2006) A high proportion of leucine is required for optimal stimulation of the rate of muscle protein synthesis by essential amino acids in the elderly. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 291, E381E387.
35.Norton LE, Layman DK, Bunpo P et al. (2009) The leucine content of a complete meal directs peak activation but not duration of skeletal muscle protein synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in rats. J Nutr 139, 11031109.
36.Atherton PJ, Smith K, Etheridge T et al. (2010) Distinct anabolic signalling responses to amino acids in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Amino Acids 38, 15331539.
37.Cuthbertson D, Smith K, Babraj J et al. (2005) Anabolic signaling deficits underlie amino acid resistance of wasting, aging muscle. FASEB J 19, 422424.
38.Rieu I, Balage M, Sornet C et al. (2006) Leucine supplementation improves muscle protein synthesis in elderly men independently of hyperaminoacidaemia. J Physiol 575, 305315.
39.Guillet C, Prod'homme M, Balage M et al. (2004) Impaired anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis is associated with S6K1 dysregulation in elderly humans. FASEB J 18, 15861587.
40.Boirie Y, Dangin M, Gachon P et al. (1997) Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94, 1493014935.
41.Dangin M, Boirie Y, Garcia-Rodenas C et al. (2001) The digestion rate of protein is an independent regulating factor of postprandial protein retention. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280, E340E348.
42.Nakshabendi IM, Obeidat W, Russell RI et al. (1995) Gut mucosal protein synthesis measured using intravenous and intragastric delivery of stable tracer amino acids. Am J Physiol 269, E996E999.
43.Phillips SM, Tang JE, & Moore DR (2009) The role of milk- and soy-based protein in support of muscle protein synthesis and muscle protein accretion in young and elderly persons. J Am Coll Nutr 28, 343354.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 240
Total number of PDF views: 880 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2814 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.