2.Milner, JA (2006) Diet and cancer: facts and controversies. Nutr Cancer 56, 216–224.
3.World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization (2002) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. WHO Technical Report Series no. 916. Geneva: WHO.
4.Astorg, P (2004) Dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk: a review of epidemiological and experimental evidence. Cancer Causes Control 15, 367–386.
5.Boyle, P, Severi, G & Giles, GG (2003) The epidemiology of prostate cancer. Urol Clin North Am 30, 209–217.
6.Messina, MJ (2003) Emerging evidence on the role of soy in reducing prostate cancer risk. Nutr Rev 61, 117–131.
7.Djavan, B, Zlotta, A, Schulman, C, Teillac, P, Iversen, P, Boccon, GL, Bartsch, G & Marberger, M (2004) Chemotherapeutic prevention studies of prostate cancer. J Urol 171, S10–S13.
8.Pathak, SK, Sharma, RA & Mellon, JK (2003) Chemoprevention of prostate cancer by diet-derived antioxidant agents and hormonal manipulation. Int J Oncol 22, 5–13.
9.Surh, YJ (2003) Cancer chemoprevention with dietary phytochemicals. Nat Rev Cancer 3, 768–780.
10.Futreal, PA, Kasprzyk, A, Birney, E, Mullikin, JC, Wooster, R & Stratton, MR (2001) Cancer and genomics. Nature 409, 850–852.
11.Wooster, R, Bignell, G, Lancaster, J, Swift, S, Seal, S, Mangion, M, Collins, N, Gregory, S, Gumbs, C & Micklem, G (1995) Identification of the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA2. Nature 378, 789–792.
12.Miki, Y, Swensen, J, Shattuck-Eidens, D et al. (1994) A strong candidate for the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1. Science 266, 66–71.
13.Bergman, A, Karlsson, P, Berggren, J, Martinsson, T, Bjorck, K, Nilsson, S, Wahlstrom, J, Wallgren, A & Nordling, M (2007) Genome-wide linkage scan for breast cancer susceptibility loci in Swedish hereditary non-BRCA1/2 families: Suggestive linkage to 10q23.32-q25.3. Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 46, 302–309.
14.Hsu, MJ, Chao, Y, Chang, YH, Ho, FM, Huang, LJ, Huang, YL, Luh, TY, Chen, CP & Lin, WW (2005) Cell apoptosis induced by a synthetic carbazole compound LCY-2-CHO is mediated through activation of caspase and mitochondrial pathways. Biochem Pharmacol 70, 102–112.
15.Rajagopalan, H & Lengauer, C (2004) Aneuploidy and cancer. Nature 432, 338–341.
16.Mao, C, Koutsky, LA, Ault, KA et al. (2006) Efficacy of human papillomavirus-16 vaccine to prevent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: A randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 107, 18–27.
17.Dontu, G, Al Hajj, M, Abdallah, WM, Clarke, MF & Wicha, MS (2003) Stem cells in normal breast development and breast cancer. Cell Prolif 36, Suppl. 1, 59–72.
18.Reya, T & Clevers, H (2005) Wnt signalling in stem cells and cancer. Nature 434, 843–850.
19.Al Hajj, M & Clarke, MF (2004) Self-renewal and solid tumor stem cells. Oncogene 23, 7274–7282.
20.Al Hajj, M, Becker, MW, Wicha, M, Weissman, I & Clarke, MF (2004) Therapeutic implications of cancer stem cells. Curr Opin Genet Dev 14, 43–47.
21.De Marzo, AM, Nelson, WG, Meeker, AK & Coffey, DS (1998) Stem cell features of benign and malignant prostate epithelial cells. J Urol 160, 2381–2392.
22.Huss, WJ, Gray, DR, Werdin, ES, Funkhouser, WK Jr & Smith, GJ (2004) Evidence of pluripotent human prostate stem cells in a human prostate primary xenograft model. Prostate 60, 77–90.
23.Beachy, PA, Karhadkar, SS & Berman, DM (2004) Tissue repair and stem cell renewal in carcinogenesis. Nature 432, 324–331.
24.Huang, W, Ma, K, Zhang, J, Qatanani, M, Cuvillier, J, Liu, J, Dong, B, Huang, X & Moore, DD (2006) Nuclear receptor-dependent bile acid signaling is required for normal liver regeneration. Science 312, 233–236.
25.Ferbeyre, G (2002) PML a target of translocations in APL is a regulator of cellular senescence. Leukemia 16, 1918–1926.
26.Reid, G, Hubner, MR, Metivier, R, Brand, H, Denger, S, Manu, D, Beaudouin, J, Ellenberg, J & Gannon, F (2003) Cyclic, proteasome-mediated turnover of unliganded and liganded ERalpha on responsive promoters is an integral feature of estrogen signaling. Mol Cell 11, 695–707.
27.Belandia, B & Parker, MG (2003) Nuclear receptors: a rendezvous for chromatin remodeling factors. Cell 114, 277–280.
28.Hermanson, O, Glass, CK & Rosenfeld, MG (2002) Nuclear receptor coregulators: multiple modes of modification. Trends Endocrinol Metab 13, 55–60.
29.Nagy, L & Schwabe, JW (2004) Mechanism of the nuclear receptor molecular switch. Trends Biochem Sci 29, 317–324.
30.Carlberg, C & Seuter, S (2007) The vitamin D receptor. Dermatol Clin 25, 515–523.
31.Caron, S, Cariou, B & Staels, B (2006) FXR: More than a bile acid receptor? Endocrinology 147, 4022–4024.
32.Lonard, DM, Lanz, RB & O'Malley, BW (2007) Nuclear receptor coregulators and human disease. Endocr Rev 28, 575–587.
33.Lonard, DM & O'Malley, BW (2007) Nuclear receptor coregulators: judges, juries, and executioners of cellular regulation. Mol Cell 27, 691–700.
34.Gurevich, I, Flores, AM & Aneskievich, BJ (2007) Corepressors of agonist-bound nuclear receptors. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 223, 288–298.
35.Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas Consortium (2007) Nuclear receptor signaling atlas. http://www.nursa.org/
36.Kotnis, A, Sarin, R & Mulherkar, R (2005) Genotype, phenotype and cancer: role of low penetrance genes and environment in tumour susceptibility. J Biosci 30, 93–102.
37.Hanahan, D & Weinberg, RA (2000) The hallmarks of cancer. Cell 100, 57–70.
38.Collins, AT, Berry, PA, Hyde, C, Stower, MJ & Maitland, NJ (2005) Prospective identification of tumorigenic prostate cancer stem cells. Cancer Res 65, 10946–10951.
39.Liu, S, Dontu, G & Wicha, MS (2005) Mammary stem cells, self-renewal pathways, and carcinogenesis. Breast Cancer Res 7, 86–95.
40.Sherley, JL (2002) Asymmetric cell kinetics genes: the key to expansion of adult stem cells in culture. Sci World J 2, 1906–1921.
41.Tiosano, D, Weisman, Y & Hochberg, Z (2001) The role of the vitamin D receptor in regulating vitamin D metabolism: A study of vitamin D-dependent rickets Type IIJ. Clin Endocrinol Metab 86, 1908–1912.
42.Schachter, D, Kimberg, DV & Schenker, H (1961) Active transport of calcium by intestine: action and bio-assay of vitamin D. Am J Physiol 200, 1263–1271.
43.Dowdle, EB, Schachter, D & Schenker, H (1960) Requirement for vitamin D for the active transport of calcium by the intestine. Am J Physiol 198, 269–274.
44.Norman, AW (1998) Sunlight, season, skin pigmentation, vitamin D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D: integral components of the vitamin D endocrine system. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 1108–1110.
45.Metivier, R, Penot, G, Hubner, MR, Reid, G, Brand, H, Kos, M & Gannon, F (2003) Estrogen receptor-alpha directs ordered, cyclical, and combinatorial recruitment of cofactors on a natural target promoter. Cell 115, 751–763.
46.Zehnder, D, Bland, R, Williams, MC, McNinch, RW, Howie, AJ, Stewart, PM & Hewison, M (2001) Extrarenal expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin d(3)-1 alpha-hydroxylase. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86, 888–894.
47.Schwartz, GG, Whitlatch, LW, Chen, TC, Lokeshwar, BL & Holick, MF (1998) Human prostate cells synthesize 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7, 391–395.
48.Schwartz, GG, Eads, D, Rao, A et al. (2004) Pancreatic cancer cells express 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha-hydroxylase and their proliferation is inhibited by the prohormone 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Carcinogenesis 25, 1015–1026.
49.Diaz, L, Sanchez, I, Avila, E, Halhali, A, Vilchis, F & Larrea, F (2000) Identification of a 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase gene transcription product in cultures of human syncytiotrophoblast cells. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85, 2543–2549.
50.Friedrich, M, Villena-Heinsen, C, Axt-Fliedner, R, Meyberg, R, Tilgen, W, Schmidt, W & Reichrath, J (2002) Analysis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3–1alpha-hydroxylase in cervical tissue. Anticancer Res 22, 183–186.
51.Townsend, K, Banwell, CM, Guy, M, Colston, KW, Mansi, JL, Stewart, PM, Campbell, MJ & Hewison, M (2005) Autocrine metabolism of vitamin D in normal and malignant breast tissue. Clin Cancer Res 11, 3579–3586.
52.Takeyama, K, Kitanaka, S, Sato, T, Kobori, M, Yanagisawa, J & Kato, S (1997) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1alpha-hydroxylase and vitamin D synthesis. Science 277, 1827–1830.
53.Rosenfeld, MG, Lunyak, VV & Glass, CK (2006) Sensors and signals: a coactivator/corepressor/epigenetic code for integrating signal-dependent programs of transcriptional response. Genes Dev 20, 1405–1428.
54.Chen, CD, Welsbie, DS, Tran, C, Baek, SH, Chen, R, Vessella, R, Rosenfeld, MG & Sawyers, CL (2004) Molecular determinants of resistance to antiandrogen therapy. Nat Med 10, 33–39.
55.Murayama, A, Kim, MS, Yanagisawa, J, Takeyama, K & Kato, S (2004) Transrepression by a liganded nuclear receptor via a bHLH activator through co-regulator switching. EMBO J 23, 1598–1608.
56.Fujiki, R, Kim, M-S, Sasaki, Y, Yoshimura, K, Kitagawa, H & Kato, S (2005) Ligand-induced transrepression by VDR through association of WSTF with acetylated histones. EMBO J 24, 3881–3894.
57.Baek, SH, Ohgi, KA, Rose, DW, Koo, EH, Glass, CK & Rosenfeld, MG (2002) Exchange of N-CoR corepressor and Tip60 coactivator complexes links gene expression by NF-kappaB and beta-amyloid precursor protein. Cell 110, 55–67.
58.Carascossa, S, Gobinet, J, Georget, V, Lucas, A, Badia, E, Castet, A, White, R, Nicolas, JC, Cavailles, V & Jalaguier, S (2006) RIP140 is a repressor of the androgen receptor activity. Mol Endocrinol 20, 1506–1518; Epublication 9 March 2006.
59.Cheng, S, Brzostek, S, Lee, SR, Hollenberg, AN & Balk, SP (2002) Inhibition of the dihydrotestosterone-activated androgen receptor by nuclear receptor corepressor. Mol Endocrinol 16, 1492–1501.
60.Guenther, MG, Barak, O & Lazar, MA (2001) The SMRT and N-CoR corepressors are activating cofactors for histone deacetylase 3. Mol Cell Biol 21, 6091–6101.
61.Hong, SH & Privalsky, ML (1999) Retinoid isomers differ in the ability to induce release of SMRT corepressor from retinoic acid receptor-alpha. J Biol Chem 274, 2885–2892.
62.Hu, X, Li, S, Wu, J, Xia, C & Lala, DS (2003) Liver X receptors interact with corepressors to regulate gene expression. Mol Endocrinol 17, 1019–1026.
63.Johnson, DR, Li, CW, Ghosh, JC, Chen, LY & Chen, JD (2005) Regulation and binding of pregnane X receptor by nuclear receptor corepressor SMRT. Mol Pharmacol 69, 99–108; Epublication 11 October 2005.
64.Lazar, MA (2003) Nuclear receptor corepressors. Nucl Recept Signal 1, e001.
65.Polly, P, Herdick, M, Moehren, U, Baniahmad, A, Heinzel, T & Carlberg, C (2000) VDR-Alien: a novel DNA-selective vitamin D3 receptor-corepressor partnership. FASEB J 14, 1455–1463.
66.Turner, BM (1998) Histone acetylation as an epigenetic determinant of long-term transcriptional competence. Cell Mol Life Sci 54, 21–31.
67.Jenuwein, T & Allis, CD (2001) Translating the histone code. Science 293, 1074–1080.
68.Turner, BM (2002) Cellular memory and the histone code. Cell 111, 285–291.
69.Hartman, HB, Yu, J, Alenghat, T, Ishizuka, T & Lazar, MA (2005) The histone-binding code of nuclear receptor co-repressors matches the substrate specificity of histone deacetylase 3. EMBO Rep 6, 445–451.
70.Strahl, BD, Briggs, SD, Brame, CJ et al. (2001) Methylation of histone H4 at arginine 3 occurs in vivo and is mediated by the nuclear receptor coactivator PRMT1. Curr Biol 11, 996–1000.
71.Shogren-Knaak, M, Ishii, H, Sun, JM, Pazin, MJ, Davie, JR & Peterson, CL (2006) Histone H4-K16 acetylation controls chromatin structure and protein interactions. Science 311, 844–847.
72.Shi, X, Hong, T, Walter, KL, Ewalt, M, Michishita, E, Hung, T, Carney, D, Pena, P, Lan, F & Kaadige, MR (2006) ING2 PHD domain links histone H3 lysine 4 methylation to active gene repression. Nature 442, 96–99.
73.Varambally, S, Dhanasekaran, SM, Zhou, M et al. (2002) The polycomb group protein EZH2 is involved in progression of prostate cancer. Nature 419, 624–629.
74.Yu, J, Li, Y, Ishizuka, T, Guenther, MG & Lazar, MA (2003) A SANT motif in the SMRT corepressor interprets the histone code and promotes histone deacetylation. EMBO J 22, 3403–3410.
75.Yoon, HG, Chan, DW, Huang, ZQ, Li, J, Fondell, JD, Qin, J & Wong, J (2003) Purification and functional characterization of the human N-CoR complex: the roles of HDAC3, TBL1 and TBLR1. EMBO J 22, 1336–1346.
76.Vaisanen, S, Dunlop, TW, Sinkkonen, L, Frank, C & Carlberg, C (2005) Spatio-temporal activation of chromatin on the human CYP24 gene promoter in the presence of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). J Mol Biol 350, 65–77.
77.Rachez, C, Gamble, M, Chang, CP, Atkins, GB, Lazar, MA & Freedman, LP (2000) The DRIP complex and SRC-1/p160 coactivators share similar nuclear receptor binding determinants but constitute functionally distinct complexes. Mol Cell Biol 20, 2718–2726.
78.Metivier, R, Reid, G & Gannon, F (2006) Transcription in four dimensions: nuclear receptor-directed initiation of gene expression. EMBO Rep 7, 161–167.
79.Hermanson, O, Jepsen, K & Rosenfeld, MG (2002) N-CoR controls differentiation of neural stem cells into astrocytes. Nature 419, 934–939.
80.Shang, Y & Brown, M (2002) Molecular determinants for the tissue specificity of SERMs. Science 295, 2465–2468.
81.Khanim, FL, Gommersall, LM, Wood, VH et al. (2004) Altered SMRT levels disrupt vitamin D(3) receptor signalling in prostate cancer cells. Oncogene 23, 6712–6725.
82.Colston, K, Colston, MJ & Feldman, D (1981) 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and malignant melanoma: the presence of receptors and inhibition of cell growth in culture. Endocrinology 108, 1083–1086.
83.Miyaura, C, Abe, E, Kuribayashi, T, Tanaka, H, Konno, K, Nishii, Y & Suda, T (1981) 1 alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 102, 937–943.
84.Abe, E, Miyaura, C, Sakagami, H, Takeda, M, Konno, K, Yamazaki, T, Yoshiki, S & Suda, T (1981) Differentiation of mouse myeloid leukemia cells induced by 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78, 4990–4994.
85.Palmer, HG, Sanchez-Carbayo, M, Ordonez-Moran, P, Larriba, MJ, Cordon-Cardo, C & Munoz, A (2003) Genetic signatures of differentiation induced by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in human colon cancer cells. Cancer Res 63, 7799–7806.
86.Koike, M, Elstner, E, Campbell, MJ, Asou, H, Uskokovic, M, Tsuruoka, N & Koeffler, HP (1997) 19-nor-hexafluoride analogue of vitamin D3: a novel class of potent inhibitors of proliferation of human breast cell lines. Cancer Res 57, 4545–4550.
87.Campbell, MJ, Elstner, E, Holden, S, Uskokovic, M & Koeffler, HP (1997) Inhibition of proliferation of prostate cancer cells by a 19-nor-hexafluoride vitamin D3 analogue involves the induction of p21waf1, p27kip1 and E-cadherin. J Mol Endocrinol 19, 15–27.
88.Elstner, E, Campbell, MJ, Munker, R, Shintaku, P, Binderup, L, Heber, D, Said, J & Koeffler, HP (1999) Novel 20-epi-vitamin D3 analog combined with 9-cis-retinoic acid markedly inhibits colony growth of prostate cancer cells. Prostate 40, 141–149.
89.Peehl, DM, Skowronski, RJ, Leung, GK, Wong, ST, Stamey, TA & Feldman, D (1994) Antiproliferative effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on primary cultures of human prostatic cells. Cancer Res 54, 805–810.
90.Welsh, J, Wietzke, JA, Zinser, GM, Smyczek, S, Romu, S, Tribble, E, Welsh, JC, Byrne, B & Narvaez, CJ (2002) Impact of the vitamin D3 receptor on growth-regulatory pathways in mammary gland and breast cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 83, 85–92.
91.Colston, KW, Berger, U & Coombes, RC (1989) Possible role for vitamin D in controlling breast cancer cell proliferation. Lancet i, 188–191.
92.Colston, K, Colston, MJ, Fieldsteel, AH & Feldman, D (1982) 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptors in human epithelial cancer cell lines. Cancer Res 42, 856–859.
93.Eelen, G, Verlinden, L, Van Camp, M, Mathieu, C, Carmeliet, G, Bouillon, R & Verstuyf, A (2004) Microarray analysis of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-treated MC3T3-E1 cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 89–90, 405–407.
94.Akutsu, N, Lin, R, Bastien, Y, Bestawros, A, Enepekides, DJ, Black, MJ & White, JH (2001) Regulation of gene expression by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analog EB1089 under growth-inhibitory conditions in squamous carcinoma cells. Mol Endocrinol 15, 1127–1139.
95.Wang, TT, Tavera-Mendoza, LE, Laperriere, D et al. (2005) Large-scale in silico and microarray-based identification of direct 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 target genes. Mol Endocrinol 19, 2685–2695.
96.Liu, M, Lee, MH, Cohen, M, Bommakanti, M & Freedman, LP (1996) Transcriptional activation of the Cdk inhibitor p21 by vitamin D3 leads to the induced differentiation of the myelomonocytic cell line U937. Genes Dev 10, 142–153.
97.Saramaki, A, Banwell, CM, Campbell, MJ & Carlberg, C (2006) Regulation of the human p21(waf1/cip1) gene promoter via multiple binding sites for p53 and the vitamin D3 receptor. Nucleic Acids Res 34, 543–554.
98.Li, P, Li, C, Zhao, X, Zhang, X, Nicosia, SV & Bai, W (2004) p27(Kip1) stabilization and G(1) arrest by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) in ovarian cancer cells mediated through down-regulation of cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and Skp1-Cullin-F-box protein/Skp2 ubiquitin ligase. J Biol Chem 279, 25260–25267.
99.Huang, YC, Chen, JY & Hung, WC (2004) Vitamin D(3) receptor/Sp1 complex is required for the induction of p27(Kip1) expression by vitamin D(3). Oncogene 23, 4856–4861.
100.Hengst, L & Reed, SI (1996) Translational control of p27Kip1 accumulation during the cell cycle. Science 271, 1861–1864.
101.Jiang, F, Li, P, Fornace, AJ Jr, Nicosia, SV & Bai, W (2003) G2/M arrest by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in ovarian cancer cells mediated through the induction of GADD45 via an exonic enhancer. J Biol Chem 278, 48030–48040.
102.Khanim, FL, Gommersall, LM, Wood, VH et al. (2004) Altered SMRT levels disrupt vitamin D3 receptor signalling in prostate cancer cells. Oncogene 23, 6712–6725.
103.Palmer, HG, Gonzalez-Sancho, JM, Espada, J et al. (2001) Vitamin D(3) promotes the differentiation of colon carcinoma cells by the induction of E-cadherin and the inhibition of beta-catenin signaling. J Cell Biol 154, 369–387.
104.Blutt, SE, McDonnell, TJ, Polek, TC & Weigel, NL (2000) Calcitriol-induced apoptosis in LNCaP cells is blocked by overexpression of Bcl-2. Endocrinology 141, 10–17.
105.Mathiasen, IS, Lademann, U & Jaattela, M (1999) Apoptosis induced by vitamin D compounds in breast cancer cells is inhibited by Bcl-2 but does not involve known caspases or p53. Cancer Res 59, 4848–4856.
106.Song, H, Cho, D, Jeon, JH, Han, SH, Hur, DY, Kim, YS & Choi, I (2003) Vitamin D(3) up-regulating protein 1 (VDUP1) antisense DNA regulates tumorigenicity and melanogenesis of murine melanoma cells via regulating the expression of fas ligand and reactive oxygen species. Immunol Lett 86, 235–247.
107.Han, SH, Jeon, JH, Ju, HR et al. (2003) VDUP1 upregulated by TGF-beta1 and 1,25-dihydorxyvitamin D3 inhibits tumor cell growth by blocking cell-cycle progression. Oncogene 22, 4035–4046.
108.Garland, CF & Garland, FC (1980) Do sunlight and vitamin D reduce the likelihood of colon cancer? Int J Epidemiol 9, 227–231.
109.Garland, FC, Garland, CF, Gorham, ED & Young, JF (1990) Geographic variation in breast cancer mortality in the United States: a hypothesis involving exposure to solar radiation. Prev Med 19, 614–622.
110.Luscombe, CJ, French, ME, Liu, S, Saxby, MF, Jones, PW, Fryer, AA & Strange, RC (2001) Prostate cancer risk: associations with ultraviolet radiation, tyrosinase and melanocortin-1 receptor genotypes. Br J Cancer 85, 1504–1509.
111.Giovannucci, E (2005) The epidemiology of vitamin D and cancer incidence and mortality: A review (United States). Cancer Causes Control 16, 83–95.
112.Schwartz, GG & Hulka, BS (1990) Is vitamin D deficiency a risk factor for prostate cancer? (Hypothesis). Anticancer Res 10, 1307–1311.
113.John, EM, Schwartz, GG, Koo, J, Van Den, BD & Ingles, SA (2005) Sun exposure, vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, and risk of advanced prostate cancer. Cancer Res 65, 5470–5479.
114.Lowe, LC, Guy, M, Mansi, JL, Peckitt, C, Bliss, J, Wilson, RG & Colston, KW (2005) Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations, vitamin D receptor genotype and breast cancer risk in a UK Caucasian population. Eur J Cancer 41, 1164–1169.
115.Townsend, K, Banwell, CM, Guy, M, Colston, KW, Mansi, JL, Stewart, PM, Campbell, MJ & Hewison, M (2005) Autocrine metabolism of vitamin D in normal and malignant breast tissue. Clin Cancer Res 11, 3579–3586.
116.Albertson, DG, Ylstra, B, Segraves, R, Collins, C, Dairkee, SH, Kowbel, D, Kuo, WL, Gray, JW & Pinkel, D (2000) Quantitative mapping of amplicon structure by array CGH identifies CYP24 as a candidate oncogene. Nat Genet 25, 144–146.
117.Feskanich, D, Ma, J, Fuchs, CS, Kirkner, GJ, Hankinson, SE, Hollis, BW & Giovannucci, EL (2004) Plasma vitamin D metabolites and risk of colorectal cancer in women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13, 1502–1508.
118.Ahonen, MH, Tenkanen, L, Teppo, L, Hakama, M & Tuohimaa, P (2000) Prostate cancer risk and prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (Finland). Cancer Causes Control 11, 847–852.
119.Hsu, JY, Feldman, D, McNeal, JE & Peehl, DM (2001) Reduced 1alpha-hydroxylase activity in human prostate cancer cells correlates with decreased susceptibility to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-induced growth inhibition. Cancer Res 61, 2852–2856.
120.Chen, TC, Wang, L, Whitlatch, LW, Flanagan, JN & Holick, MF (2003) Prostatic 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase and its implication in prostate cancer. J Cell Biochem 88, 315–322.
121.Garland, C, Shekelle, RB, Barrett-Connor, E, Criqui, MH, Rossof, AH & Paul, O (1985) Dietary vitamin D and calcium and risk of colorectal cancer: a 19-year prospective study in men. Lancet i, 307–309.
122.Luscombe, CJ, French, ME, Liu, S, Saxby, MF, Jones, PW, Fryer, AA & Strange, RC (2001) Outcome in prostate cancer associations with skin type and polymorphism in pigmentation-related genes. Carcinogenesis 22, 1343–1347.
123.Slattery, ML, Neuhausen, SL, Hoffman, M, Caan, B, Curtin, K, Ma, KN & Samowitz, W (2004) Dietary calcium, vitamin D, VDR genotypes and colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer 111, 750–756.
124.Zinser, GM & Welsh, J (2004) Vitamin D receptor status alters mammary gland morphology and tumorigenesis in MMTV-neu mice. Carcinogenesis 25, 2361–2372.
125.Zinser, GM & Welsh, JE (2004) Effect of vitamin D(3) receptor ablation on murine mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 89–90, 433–436.
126.Milliken, EL, Zhang, X, Flask, C, Duerk, JL, MacDonald, PN & Keri, RA (2005) EB1089, a vitamin D receptor agonist, reduces proliferation and decreases tumor growth rate in a mouse model of hormone-induced mammary cancer. Cancer Lett 229, 205–215.
127.Zhang, X, Jiang, F, Li, P, Li, C, Ma, Q, Nicosia, SV & Bai, W (2005) Growth suppression of ovarian cancer xenografts in nude mice by vitamin D analogue EB1089. Clin Cancer Res 11, 323–328.
128.Audo, I, Darjatmoko, SR, Schlamp, CL, Lokken, JM, Lindstrom, MJ, Albert, DM & Nickells, RW (2003) Vitamin D analogues increase p53, p21, and apoptosis in a xenograft model of human retinoblastoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44, 4192–4199.
129.Xue, L, Lipkin, M, Newmark, H & Wang, J (1999) Influence of dietary calcium and vitamin D on diet-induced epithelial cell hyperproliferation in mice. J Natl Cancer Inst 91, 176–181.
130.Huerta, S, Irwin, RW, Heber, D, Go, VL, Koeffler, HP, Uskokovic, MR & Harris, DM (2002) 1alpha,25-(OH)(2)-D(3) and its synthetic analogue decrease tumor load in the Apc(min) Mouse. Cancer Res 62, 741–746.
131.Anzano, MA, Smith, JM, Uskokovic, MR, Peer, CW, Mullen, LT, Letterio, JJ, Welsh, MC, Shrader, MW, Logsdon, DL & Driver, CL (1994) 1 alpha,25-Dihydroxy-16-ene-23-yne-26,27-hexafluorocholecalciferol (Ro24–5531), a new deltanoid (vitamin D analogue) for prevention of breast cancer in the rat. Cancer Res 54, 1653–1656.
132.Belleli, A, Shany, S, Levy, J, Guberman, R & Lamprecht, SA (1992) A protective role of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in chemically induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 13, 2293–2298.
133.Cross, HS, Kallay, E, Lechner, D, Gerdenitsch, W, Adlercreutz, H & Armbrecht, HJ (2004) Phytoestrogens and vitamin D metabolism: a new concept for the prevention and therapy of colorectal, prostate, and mammary carcinomas. J Nutr 134, 1207S–1212S.
134.Szeto, FL, Sun, J, Kong, J, Duan, Y, Liao, A, Madara, JL & Li, YC (2007) Involvement of the vitamin D receptor in the regulation of NF-[kappa]B activity in fibroblasts. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 103, 563–566.
135.Froicu, M & Cantorna, M (2007) Vitamin D and the vitamin D receptor are critical for control of the innate immune response to colonic injury. BMC Immunology 8, 5.
136.Gombart, AF, Borregaard, N & Koeffler, HP (2005) Human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene is a direct target of the vitamin D receptor and is strongly up-regulated in myeloid cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. FASEB J 19, 1067–1077.
137.Wang, T-T, Nestel, FP, Bourdeau, V et al. (2004) Cutting edge: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is a direct inducer of antimicrobial peptide gene expression. J Immunol 173, 2909–2912.
138.Mallbris, L, Wiegleb, ED, Sundblad, L, Granath, F & Stahle, M (2005) UVB upregulates the antimicrobial protein hCAP18 mRNA in human skin. J Investig Dermatol 125, 1072–1074.
139.Zasloff, M (2005) Sunlight vitamin D, and the innate immune defenses of the human skin. J Investig Dermatol 125, xvi–xvii.
140.Copeland, RL Jr, Das, JR, Bakare, O, Enwerem, NM, Berhe, S, Hillaire, K, White, D, Beyene, D, Kassim, OO & Kanaan, YM (2007) Cytotoxicity of 2,3-dichloro-5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone in androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cell lines. Anticancer Res 27, 1537–1546.
141.Sztanke, K, Tuzimski, T, Rzymowska, J, Pasternak, K & Kandefer-Szerszen, M (2007) Synthesis, determination of the lipophilicity, anticancer and antimicrobial properties of some fused 1,2,4-triazole derivatives. Eur J Med Chem (Epublication ahead of print version).
142.Heilborn, JD, Nilsson, MF, Jimenez, CI, Sandstedt, B, Borregaard, N, Tham, E, Sorensen, OE, Weber, G & Stahle, M (2005) Antimicrobial protein hCAP18/LL-37 is highly expressed in breast cancer and is a putative growth factor for epithelial cells. Int J Cancer 114, 713–719.
143.Beer, TM (2005) ASCENT: the androgen-independent prostate cancer study of calcitriol enhancing taxotere. BJU Int 96, 508–513.
144.Beer, TM, Javle, M, Lam, GN, Henner, WD, Wong, A & Trump, DL (2005) Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of a single dose of DN-101, a new formulation of calcitriol, in patients with cancer. Clin Cancer Res 11, 7794–7799.
145.Trump, DL, Potter, DM, Muindi, J, Brufsky, A & Johnson, CS (2006) Phase II trial of high-dose, intermittent calcitriol (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3) and dexamethasone in androgen-independent prostate cancer. Cancer 106, 2136–2142.
146.Beer, TM, Myrthue, A & Eilers, KM (2005) Rationale for the development and current status of calcitriol in androgen-independent prostate cancer. World J Urol 23, 28–32.
147.Stein, MS & Wark, JD (2003) An update on the therapeutic potential of vitamin D analogues. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 12, 825–840.
148.Miller, CW, Morosetti, R, Campbell, MJ, Mendoza, S & Koeffler, HP (1997) Integrity of the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor in bone, lung, and other cancers. Mol Carcinog 19, 254–257.
149.Ruggiero, M, Pacini, S, Aterini, S, Fallai, C, Ruggiero, C & Pacini, P (1998) Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism is associated with metastatic breast cancer. Oncol Res 10, 43–46.
150.Lundin, AC, Soderkvist, P, Eriksson, B, Bergman-Jungestrom, M & Wingren, S (1999) Association of breast cancer progression with a vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism. South-East Sweden Breast Cancer Group. Cancer Res 59, 2332–2334.
151.Curran, JE, Vaughan, T, Lea, RA, Weinstein, SR, Morrison, NA & Griffiths, LR (1999) Association of a vitamin D receptor polymorphism with sporadic breast cancer development. Int J Cancer 83, 723–726.
152.Ingles, SA, Garcia, DG, Wang, W, Nieters, A, Henderson, BE, Kolonel, LN, Haile, RW & Coetzee, GA (2000) Vitamin D receptor genotype and breast cancer in Latinas (United States). Cancer Causes Control 11, 25–30.
153.Bretherton-Watt, D, Given-Wilson, R, Mansi, JL, Thomas, V, Carter, N & Colston, KW (2001) Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with breast cancer risk in a UK Caucasian population. Br J Cancer 85, 171–175.
154.Hou, MF, Tien, YC, Lin, GT, Chen, CJ, Liu, CS, Lin, SY & Huang, TJ (2002) Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism with sporadic breast cancer in Taiwanese patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat 74, 1–7.
155.Dunning, AM, McBride, S, Gregory, J et al. (1999) No association between androgen or vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer. Carcinogenesis 20, 2131–2135.
156.Gsur, A, Madersbacher, S, Haidinger, G, Schatzl, G, Marberger, M, Vutuc, C & Micksche, M (2002) Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and prostate cancer risk. Prostate 51, 30–34.
157.Morrison, NA, Qi, JC, Tokita, A, Kelly, PJ, Crofts, L, Nguyen, TV, Sambrook, PN & Eisman, JA (1994) Prediction of bone density from vitamin D receptor alleles. Nature 367, 284–287.
158.Guy, M, Lowe, LC, Bretherton-Watt, D, Mansi, JL & Colston, KW (2003) Approaches to evaluating the association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with breast cancer risk. Recent results. Cancer Res 164, 43–54.
159.Ingles, SA, Coetzee, GA, Ross, RK, Henderson, BE, Kolonel, LN, Crocitto, L, Wang, W & Haile, RW (1998) Association of prostate cancer with vitamin D receptor haplotypes in African-Americans. Cancer Res 58, 1620–1623.
160.Ma, J, Stampfer, MJ, Gann, PH, Hough, HL, Giovannucci, E, Kelsey, KT, Hennekens, CH & Hunter, DJ (1998) Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, circulating vitamin D metabolites, and risk of prostate cancer in United States physicians. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7, 385–390.
161.Gorlach, M, Burd, CG & Dreyfuss, G (1994) The mRNA poly(A)-binding protein: localization abundance, and RNA-binding specificity. Exp Cell Res 211, 400–407.
162.Kim, JG, Kwon, JH, Kim, SH, Choi, YM, Moon, SY & Lee, JY (2003) Association between vitamin D receptor gene haplotypes and bone mass in postmenopausal Korean women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189, 1234–1240.
163.Kuraishi, T, Sun, Y, Aoki, F, Imakawa, K & Sakai, S (2000) The poly(A) tail length of casein mRNA in the lactating mammary gland changes depending upon the accumulation and removal of milk. Biochem J 347, 579–583.
164.Schondorf, T, Eisberg, C, Wassmer, G, Warm, M, Becker, M, Rein, DT & Gohring, UJ (2003) Association of the vitamin D receptor genotype with bone metastases in breast cancer patients. Oncology 64, 154–159.
165.Lundin, AC, Soderkvist, P, Eriksson, B, Bergman-Jungestrom, M & Wingren, S (1999) Association of breast cancer progression with a vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism. South-East Sweden Breast Cancer Group. Cancer Res 59, 2332–2334.
166.Guy, M, Lowe, LC, Bretherton-Watt, D, Mansi, JL, Peckitt, C, Bliss, J, Wilson, RG, Thomas, V & Colston, KW (2004) Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk. Clin Cancer Res 10, 5472–5481.
167.Ntais, C, Polycarpou, A & Ioannidis, JP (2003) Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12, 1395–1402.
168.Rashid, SF, Moore, JS, Walker, E, Driver, PM, Engel, J, Edwards, CE, Brown, G, Uskokovic, MR & Campbell, MJ (2001) Synergistic growth inhibition of prostate cancer cells by 1 alpha,25 dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and its 19-nor-hexafluoride analogs in combination with either sodium butyrate or trichostatin A. Oncogene 20, 1860–1872.
169.Campbell, MJ, Gombart, AF, Kwok, SH, Park, S & Koeffler, HP (2000) The anti-proliferative effects of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 on breast and prostate cancer cells are associated with induction of BRCA1 gene expression. Oncogene 19, 5091–5097.
170.Miller, GJ, Stapleton, GE, Hedlund, TE & Moffat, KA (1995) Vitamin D receptor expression, 24-hydroxylase activity, and inhibition of growth by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in seven human prostatic carcinoma cell lines. Clin Cancer Res 1, 997–1003.
171.Rashid, SF, Mountford, JC, Gombart, AF & Campbell, MJ (2001) 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) displays divergent growth effects in both normal and malignant cells. Steroids 66, 433–440.
172.Banwell, CM, O'Neill, LP, Uskokovic, MR & Campbell, MJ (2004) Targeting 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 antiproliferative insensitivity in breast cancer cells by co-treatment with histone deacetylation inhibitors. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 89–90, 245–249.
173.Banwell, CM, Singh, R, Stewart, PM, Uskokovic, MR & Campbell, MJ (2003) Antiproliferative signalling by 1,25(OH)2D3 in prostate and breast cancer is suppressed by a mechanism involving histone deacetylation. Recent Results Cancer Res 164, 83–98.
174.Abedin, SA, Banwell, CM, Colston, KW, Carlberg, C & Campbell, MJ (2006) Epigenetic corruption of VDR signalling in malignancy. Anticancer Res 26, 2557–2566.
175.Banwell, CM, MacCartney, DP, Guy, M et al. (2006) Altered nuclear receptor corepressor expression attenuates vitamin D receptor signaling in breast cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res 12, 2004–2013.
176.Costa, EM & Feldman, D (1987) Modulation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor binding and action by sodium butyrate in cultured pig kidney cells (LLC-PK1). J Bone Miner Res 2, 151–159.
177.Gaschott, T & Stein, J (2003) Short-chain fatty acids and colon cancer cells: the vitamin D receptor–butyrate connection. Recent results. Cancer Res 164, 247–257.
178.Daniel, C, Schroder, O, Zahn, N, Gaschott, T & Stein, J (2004) p38 MAPK signaling pathway is involved in butyrate-induced vitamin D receptor expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 324, 1220–1226.
179.Chen, JS, Faller, DV & Spanjaard, RA (2003) Short-chain fatty acid inhibitors of histone deacetylases: promising anticancer therapeutics? Curr Cancer Drug Targets 3, 219–236.
180.Gaschott, T, Werz, O, Steinmeyer, A, Steinhilber, D & Stein, J (2001) Butyrate-induced differentiation of Caco-2 cells is mediated by vitamin D receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 288, 690–696.
181.Tanaka, Y, Bush, KK, Klauck, TM & Higgins, PJ (1989) Enhancement of butyrate-induced differentiation of HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Biochem Pharmacol 38, 3859–3865.
182.Westerhoff, HV & Palsson, BO (2004) The evolution of molecular biology into systems biology. Nat Biotechnol 22, 1249–1252.
183.Muller, M & Kersten, S (2003) Nutrigenomics: goals and strategies. Nat Rev Genet 4, 315–322.