Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-vcb8f Total loading time: 0.568 Render date: 2022-09-29T06:22:03.243Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Radiocarbon Dating of a Multi-phase Passage Tomb on Baltinglass Hill, Co. Wicklow, Ireland

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 March 2017

Rick J. Schulting
Affiliation:
Institute of Archaeology 36 Beaumont St, Oxford, OX1 2PG Email: rick.schulting@arch.ox.ac.uk
Meriel Mcclatchie
Affiliation:
School of Archaeology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
Alison Sheridan
Affiliation:
National Museum of Scotland, Chambers Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1JF
Rowan Mclaughlin
Affiliation:
Queen’s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast, BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland
Phil Barratt
Affiliation:
Cognition Institute, Plymouth University, Plymouth, PL4 8AA
Nicki J. Whitehouse
Affiliation:
School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University, Plymouth, PL4 8AA

Abstract

Baltinglass is a multi-chamber Neolithic passage tomb in Co. Wicklow, Ireland, excavated in the 1930s. This paper presents the results of a radiocarbon dating programme on charred wheat grains and hazelnut shell found underlying the cairn, and on cremated human bone found within and near two of the monument’s five chambers. The results are surprising, in that three of the six determinations on calcined bone pre-date by one or two centuries the charred cereals and hazelnut shells sealed under the cairn, dating to c. 3600–3400 cal bc. Of the remaining three bone results, one is coeval with the charred plant remains, while the final two can be placed in the period 3300/3200–2900 cal bc, that is more traditionally associated with developed passage tombs. A suggested sequence of construction is presented beginning with a simple tomb lacking a cairn, followed by a burning event – perhaps a ritual preparation of the ground – involving the deposition of cereal grains and other materials, very rapidly and intentionally sealed under a layer of clay, in turn followed by at least two phases involving the construction of more substantial chambers and associated cairns. What was already a complex funerary monument has proven to be even more complex, with a history spanning at least six centuries.

Résumé

Datation au C14 d’une tombe à couloir à phases multiples sur la colline de Baltinglass Hill, Comté de Wicklow, de Rick J. Schulting, Meriel McClatchie, Alison Sheridan, Rowan McLaughlin, Phil Barratt et Nicki Whitehouse

Baltinglass est une tombe à couloir néolithique à plusieurs chambres dans le comté de Wicklow, fouillée dans les années 1930. Cet article présente les résultats d’un programme de datation au C14 sur des grains de blé et des coquilles de noisette carbonisés découverts sous le cairn et sur des os humains incinérés trouvés à l’intérieur et à proximité de deux des cinq chambres du monument. Les résultats sont surprenants en ce que trois des six déterminations sur les os calcinés pré-datent d’un ou deux siècles les céréales et les coquilles de noisette carbonisées scellées sous le cairn, datant d’environ 3600–3400 cal av. J.-C. Des trois résultats sur les os qui restent, l’un est contemporain des restes végétaux calcinés, tandis qu’on peut placer les deux derniers dans la période 3300/3200–2900 cal av. J.C., ce qui est plus traditionnellement associé aux tombes à couloir développées. Nous présentons une proposition de séquence de construction qui commence avec une simple tombe dépourvue de cairn, suivie d’un épisode de brûlage, peut-être une préparation rituelle du sol, comprenant le dépôt de graines de céréales et autres matériaux, très rapidement et délibérément scellés sous une couche d’argile, suivie à son tour d’au moins deux phases comprenant la construction de chambres plus substantielles et de cairns associés. Ce qui constituait déjà un monument funéraire complexe s’est révélé être encore plus complexe, avec une histoire couvrant au moins six siècles.

Zussamenfassung

Die Radiokarbondatierung eines mehrperiodigen Megalithgrabs von Baltinglass Hill, Co. Wicklow, von Rick J. Schulting, Meriel McClatchie, Alison Sheridan, Rowan McLaughlin, Phil Barratt und Nicki Whitehouse

Baltinglass ist ein neolithisches Megalithgrab mit mehreren Kammern im Co. Wicklow, das in den 1930ern ausgegraben wurde. Dieser Beitrag stellt die Resultate eines C14-Datierungsprogramms von verkohlten Weizenkörnern und Haselnussschalen vor, die unter dem zugehörigen Hügel gefunden worden waren, und von Leichenbrand, der innerhalb und nahe von zwei der fünf Kammern des Megalithgrabes gefunden wurde. Die Ergebnisse sind überraschend, da drei der sechs Bestimmungen an kalzinierten Knochen um ein oder zwei Jahrhunderte vor den Daten des verkohlten Getreides und der Haselnussschalen liegen, die unter dem Hügel versiegelt lagen und zwischen ca. 3600 und 3400 cal BC datieren. Von den verbleibenden drei Ergebnissen an Knochen ist eines zeitgleich mit den Daten der Pflanzenreste, während die beiden anderen in den Zeitraum 3300/3200 bis 2900 cal BC fallen, also in die Zeitspanne, die traditionell eher mit den entwickelten Kammergräbern in Verbindung gebracht wird. Eine mögliche Abfolge der Errichtung wird vorgeschlagen, die mit einem einfachen Grab ohne Hügel beginnt, gefolgt von einem Brandereignis – vielleicht einer rituellen Präparation des Bodens – das die Deponierung von Getreidesamen und anderen Materialien einschloss und das sehr schnell und intentionell unter einer Lehmschicht versiegelt wurde, wiederum gefolgt von mindestens zwei Phasen des Baus größerer Kammern und zugehöriger Hügel. Ein Grabmonument, das bereits als komplex gelten konnte, erweist sich als noch weit komplexer, mit einer Geschichte, die mindestens sechs Jahrhunderte umspannt.

Resumen

Datación radiocarbónia de una tumba de corredor multifase en Baltinglass Hill, Co. Wicklow, por Rick J. Schulting, Meriel McClatchie, Alison Sheridan, Rowan McLaughlin, Phil Barratt y Nicki Whitehouse

Baltinglass es una tumba de corredor neolítica con varias cámaras en el condado de Wicklow, excavada en la década de 1930. En este artículo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en el programa de dataciones radiocarbónicas realizadas a partir de semillas de trigo carbonizadas y cáscaras de avellanas documentadas bajo el túmulo de piedras, y de los restos humanos cremados hallados en el interior y en las cercanías de dos de las cinco cámaras. Los resultados obtenidos son sorprendentes ya que tres de las seis dataciones realizadas sobre hueso calcinado datadas en ca. 3600–3400 cal BC, preceden en dos siglos a los cereales y las cáscaras de avellanas carbonizadas documentadas bajo el túmulo. De los otros tres resultados obtenidos a partir de hueso, uno es contemporáneo a los restos vegetales carbonizados, mientras que los otros dos se sitúan en el período 3300/3200–2900 cal BC que tradicionalmente se asocia a las tumbas de corredor desarrolladas. Se presenta una posible secuencia de construcción que comenzaría con un enterramiento simple sin túmulo, seguido de un evento de cremación -quizá un ritual preparatorio del terreno- que supondría la deposición de granos de cereal y otros materiales, rápida e intencionalmente sellados por un nivel de arcilla, y a su vez seguirían al menos dos fases que supondrían la construcción de las cámaras más significativas y los túmulos asociados. Lo que era ya un monumento funerario complejo ha demostrado ser más complejo aún, con una historia que abarca al menos seis siglos.

Type
Articles
Copyright
© The Prehistoric Society 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

ApSimon, A.M. 1986. Chronological contexts for Irish megalithic tombs. Journal of Irish Archaeology 3, 515 Google Scholar
Ashmore, P.J. 2004. Absolute chronology. In I.A.G. Shepherd & G.J. Barclay (eds), Scotland in Ancient Europe: the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age of Scotland in their European context, 125136. Edinburgh: Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Google Scholar
Bayliss, A., Bronk Ramsey, C., van der Plicht, J. & Whittle, A. 2007. Bradshaw and Bayes: towards a timetable for the Neolithic. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 17, 128 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bayliss, A. & O’Sullivan, M. 2013. Interpreting chronologies for the Mound of the Hostages, Tara and its contemporary contexts in Neolithic and Bronge Age Ireland. In M. O’Sullivan, C. Scarre & M. Doyle (eds), Tara – From the Past to the Future. Towards a New Research Agenda, 26104. Dublin: Wordwell Google Scholar
Bergh, S. 1995. Landscape of the Monuments. Stockholm: Arkeologiska Undersökningar Skrifter 6Google Scholar
Bergh, S. 2002. Knocknarea: The ultimate monument. Megaliths and mountains in Neolithic Cúil Irra, north-west Ireland. In C. Scarre (ed.), Monuments and Landscape in Atlantic Europe, 139151. London: Routledge Google Scholar
Bergh, S. & Hensey, R. 2013. Unpicking the chronology of Carrowmore. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 32(4), 343366 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bradshaw, R. & McGee, E. 1988. The extent and time-course of mountain blanket peat erosion in Ireland. New Phytologist 108, 219224 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brindley, A.L., Lanting, J.N. & Mook, W.G. 1983. Radiocarbon dates from the Neolithic burials at Ballintruer More, Co. Wicklow, and Ardcrony, Co. Tipperary. Journal of Irish Archaeology 1, 19 Google Scholar
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2009. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 51(1), 337360 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buck, C.E., Cavanagh, W.G. & Litton, C.D. 1996. Bayesian Approach to Interpreting Archaeological Data. Chichester: Wiley Google Scholar
Bulfin, M., Radford, T. & Comey, A. 1979. Upland soils of Wicklow have good potential. Farm and Food Research 10(2), 3638 Google Scholar
Burenhult, G. 1984. The Archaeology of Carrowmore. Stockholm: Theses and Papers in North-European Archaeology 14Google Scholar
Burenhult, G. 2001. The Megalithic Cemetery of Carrowmore, Co. Sligo. Tjörnarp: Göran Burenhult Google Scholar
Collins, A.E.P. 1954. The excavation of a double horned cairn at Audleystown, Co. Down. Ulster Journal of Archaeology 17, 756 Google Scholar
Collins, A.E.P. 1981. The flint javelin heads of Ireland. In D. Ó'Corráin (ed.), Irish Antiquity: essays and studies presented to Professor M.J. O’Kelly, 111133. Dublin: Four Courts Press Google Scholar
Cooney, G. 1981. A saddle quern from Baltinglass Hill, Co. Wicklow. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 111, 102106 Google Scholar
Cooney, G. 2000. Landscapes of Neolithic Ireland. London: Routledge Google Scholar
Cooney, G. 2014. The role of cremation in mortuary practice in the Irish Neolithic. In I. Kuijt, C.J. Quinn & G. Cooney (eds), Transformation by Fire: the archaeology of cremation in cultural context, 189206. Tucson: University of Arizona Press Google Scholar
Cooney, G., Bayliss, A., Healy, F., Whittle, A., Danaher, E., Cagney, L., Mallory, J.P., Smyth, J., Kador, T. & O’Sullivan, M. 2011. Ireland. In A. Whittle, F. Healy & A. Bayliss (eds), Gathering Time: dating the Early Neolithic enclosures of southern Britain and Ireland, 562669. Oxford: Oxbow Books Google Scholar
Ditchfield, P. 2014. Stable isotope analysis. In A. Lynch (ed.), Poulnabrone, Co. Clare. Excavation of an Early Neolithic Portal Tomb, 86–92. Dublin: Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Archaeological Monograph Series 9Google Scholar
Eogan, G. 1974. Report on the excavations of some passage graves, unprotected inhumation burials and a settlement site at Knowth. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 74C, 111112 Google Scholar
Eogan, G. 1984. Excavations at Knowth 1. Smaller Passage Tombs, Neolithic Occupation and Beaker Activity. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy, Monographs in Archaeology Google Scholar
Eogan, G. 1986. Knowth and the Passage-Tombs of Ireland. London: Thames & Hudson Google Scholar
Eogan, G. & Roche, H. 1997. Pre-tomb Neolithic house discovered at Knowth, Co. Meath. Archaeology Ireland 11(2), 31 Google Scholar
Fowler, C. & Cummings, V. 2003. Places of transformation: building monuments from water and stone in the Neolithic of the Irish Sea. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 9, 120 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hartnett, P.J. 1971. The excavation of two tumuli at Fourknocks (sites II and III), Co. Meath. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 71C, 3589 Google Scholar
Hedges, R.E.M., Clement, J.G., Thomas, C.D.L. & O’Connell, T.C. 2007. Collagen turnover in the adult femoral mid-shaft: modeled from anthropogenic radiocarbon tracer measurements. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 133(2), 808816 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hemp, W.J. 1930. The chambered cairn of Bryn Celli Ddu. Archaeologia 30, 179214 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hensey, R. 2015. First Light: The Origins of Newgrange. Oxford: Oxbow Books, Oxbow Insights in Archaeology 1Google Scholar
Hensey, R. & Bergh, S. 2013. ‘The inns at Sligo are better than those at Auray… and the scenery far more beautiful’ – Carrowmore re-visited. In M.A. Timoney (ed.), Dedicated to Sligo, 4143. Keash: Publishing Sligo’s Past Google Scholar
Hensey, R., Meehan, P., Dowd, M. & Moore, S. 2014. A century of archaeology – historical excavation and modern research at the Carrowkeel passage tombs, County Sligo. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 114C, 5787 Google Scholar
Herity, M. 1974. Irish Passage Graves. Dublin: Irish University Press Google Scholar
Hüls, C.M., Erlenkeuser, H., Nadeau, M.-J., Grootes, P.M. & Andersen, N. 2010. Experimental study on the origin of cremated bone apatite carbon. Radiocarbon 52(2–3), 587599 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnston, P. 2007. Analysis of carbonised plant remains. In E. Grogan, L. O’Donnell & P. Johnston (eds), The Bronze Age Landscapes of the Pipeline to the West: an integrated archaeological and environmental assessment, 7079. Bray: Wordwell Google Scholar
Kador, T., Geber, J., Hensey, R., Meehan, P. & Moore, S. 2015. New dates from Carrowkeel. PAST 79, 12114 Google Scholar
Lanting, J.N. & Brindley, A.L. 1998. Dating cremated bone: the dawn of a new era. Journal of Irish Archaeology 8, 2542 Google Scholar
Lanting, J.N., Aerts-Bijma, A.T. & van der Plicht, J. 2001. Dating of cremated bones. Radiocarbon 43(2), 249454 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lynch, A. (ed.), 2014. Poulnabrone: An Early Neolithic Portal Tomb in Ireland. Dublin: Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Archaeological Monograph Series 9Google Scholar
Lynch, A. & Ó Donnabháin, B. 1994. Poulnabrone portal tomb. The Other Clare 18, 57 Google Scholar
Macalister, R.A.S. 1932. A burial cairn on Seefin Mountain, Co. Wicklow. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 62, 153157 Google Scholar
Mallory, J.P., Nelis, E. & Hartwell, B. 2011. Excavations on Donegore Hill, Co. Antrim. Dublin: Wordwell Google Scholar
McClatchie, M., Bogaard, A., Colledge, S., Whitehouse, N.J., Schulting, R.J., Barratt, P. & McLaughlin, R. 2014. Neolithic farming in north-western Europe: archaeobotanical evidence from Ireland. Journal of Archaeological Science 51, 206215 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McClatchie, M., Bogaard, A., Colledge, S., Whitehouse, N.J., Schulting, R.J., Barratt, P. & McLaughlin, R. 2016. Farming and foraging in Neolithic Ireland: a review of the evidence from plant macro-remains. Antiquity 90, 302318 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McKinley, J.I. & Bond, J.M. 2001. Cremated bone. In D.R. Brothwell & A.M. Pollard (eds), Handbook of Archaeological Sciences, 281292. Chichester: Wiley Google Scholar
McLaughlin, T.R., Whitehouse, N.J., Schulting, R.J., McClatchie, M. & Barratt, P. 2016. The changing face of Neolithic and Bronze Age Ireland: a Big Data approach to the settlement and burial records. Journal of World Prehistory 29(2), 117153 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McSparron, C. 2008. Have you no homes to go to? Archaeology Ireland 22, 1821 Google Scholar
Meighan, I.G., Simpson, D.D.A., Hartwell, B., Fallick, A. & Kennan, P. 2003. Sourcing the quartz at Newgrange, Brú na Bóinne, Ireland. In G. Burenhult & S. Westergaard (ed.), Stones and Bones. Formal Disposal of the Dead in Atlantic Europe During the Mesolithic–Neolithic Interface 6000–3000BC, 247–51. Oxford: British Archaeological Report S1201Google Scholar
Mitchell, A. 1884. On white pebbles in connection with Pagan and Christian burials, a seeming survival of an ancient custom. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 18, 286291 Google Scholar
Mitchell, F. 1992. Notes on some non-local cobbles at the entrances to the passage-graves at Newgrange and Knowth, County Meath. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 122, 128145 Google Scholar
Murphy, E. & Ó Donnabháin, B. forthcoming. The People of Prehistoric Ireland. Dublin: Four Courts Press Google Scholar
Nelis, E.L. 2004. Neolithic flint-work from the north of Ireland: some thoughts on prominent tool types and their production. In A. Gibson & A. Sheridan (eds), From Sickles to Circles. Britain and Ireland at the Time of Stonehenge, 155175. Stroud: Tempus Google Scholar
O’Kelly, C. 1973. Passage-grave art in the Boyne Valley. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 39, 354382 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
O’Kelly, M.J. 1958. A horned-cairn at Shanballyedmond, Co. Tipperary. Journal of the Cork Historical & Archaeological Society 63, 3772 Google Scholar
O’Kelly, M.J. 1982. Newgrange: Archaeology, Art and Legend. London: Thames & Hudson Google Scholar
O’Kelly, M.J. 1989. Early Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Google Scholar
O’Sullivan, M. 1993a. Recent investigations at Knockroe passage tomb. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 123, 518 Google Scholar
O’Sullivan, M. 1993b. Megalithic Art in Ireland. Dublin: Country House Google Scholar
O’Sullivan, M. 2005. Duma na nGiall – The Mound of the Hostages, Tara. Dublin: Wordwell and University College Dublin Google Scholar
O’Sullivan, M., Scarre, C. & Doyle, M. (eds) 2013. Tara – From the Past to the Future. Towards a New Research Agenda. Dublin: Wordwell Google Scholar
Raftery, J. 1973. A Neolithic burial mound at Ballintruer More, Co. Wicklow. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 103, 214219 Google Scholar
Rynne, E. 1963. The decorated stones at Seefin. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 93(1), 8586 Google Scholar
Schulting, R.J. 2011. The radiocarbon dates from Tullahedy. In R.M. Cleary & H. Kelleher (eds), Excavations at Tullahedy, Co. Tipperary, Neolithic Settlement in North Munster, 145161. Cork: Collins Press Google Scholar
Schulting, R.J. 2014a. Dating the construction of Newgrange, 46–50 in A. Lynch, Newgrange revisited: new insights from excavations at the back of the mound 1984–5. Journal of Irish Archaeology 23, 1382 Google Scholar
Schulting, R.J. 2014b. The dating of Poulnabrone, Co. Clare. In A. Lynch (ed.), Poulnabrone: An Early Neolithic Portal Tomb in Ireland, 93–113. Dublin: Department of Arts, Heritage and the Gaeltacht, Archaeological Monograph Series 9Google Scholar
Schulting, R.J., Murphy, E., Jones, C. & Warren, G. 2012. New dates from the north, and a proposed chronology for Irish court tombs. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 112C, 160 Google Scholar
Schulting, R.J., Sheridan, J.A., Crozier, R. & Murphy, E. 2010. Revisiting Quanterness: new AMS dates and stable isotope data from an Orcadian chamber tomb. Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 140, 150 Google Scholar
Schulting, R.J., Bronk Ramsey, C., Reimer, P.J., Eogan, G., Cleary, K., Cooney, G. & Sheridan, J.A. forthcoming. Dating the human remains from Knowth. In G. Eogan & K. Cleary (eds), Excavations at Knowth 6: the archaeology of the large passage tomb at Knowth, Co. Meath. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy Google Scholar
Sheridan, J.A. 1986. Megaliths and megalomania: an account, and interpretation, of the development of passage tombs in Ireland. Journal of Irish Archaeology 3, 1730 Google Scholar
Sheridan, J.A. 1995. Irish Neolithic pottery: the story in 1995. In I.A. Kinnes and G. Varndell (eds), ‘Unbaked Urns of Rudely Shape’, 3–21. Oxford: Oxbow Monograph 55Google Scholar
Sheridan, J.A. 2003. Ireland’s earliest ‘passage’ tombs: a French connection? In G. Burenhult & S. Westergaard (eds), Stone and Bones. Formal Disposal of the Dead in Atlantic Europe during the Mesolithic–Neolithic Interface 6000–3000BC, 9–26. Oxford: British Archaeological Report S1201Google Scholar
Sheridan, J.A. 2010. The Neolithization of Britain and Ireland: the ‘big picture’. In B. Finlayson & G. Warren (eds), Landscapes in Transition, 89–105. Oxford: Oxbow Books/Council for British Research in the Levant 8Google Scholar
Smyth, J. 2014. Settlement in the Irish Neolithic: new discoveries at the edge of Europe. Oxford: Oxbow Books/Prehistoric Society Research Papers 6Google Scholar
Snoeck, C., Brock, F. & Schulting, R.J. 2014. Carbon exchanges between bone apatite and fuels during cremation: impact on radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 56(2), 591602 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stout, G. 1989. The archaeology of County Wicklow. Archaeology Ireland 3(4), 126131 Google Scholar
Stout, G. & Stout, M. 2008. Newgrange. Cork: Cork University Press Google Scholar
Thompson, T. 2005. Clocha Geala/Clocha Uaisle: white quartz in Irish tradition. Béaloideas 73, 111133 Google Scholar
Walshe, P.T. 1941. The excavation of a burial cairn on Baltinglass Hill, Co. Wicklow. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 46, 221236 Google Scholar
Whitehouse, N.J., Schulting, R.J., McClatchie, M., Barratt, P., McLaughlin, R., Bogaard, A., Colledge, S., Marchant, R., Gaffrey, J. & Bunting, M.J. 2014. Neolithic agriculture on the European western frontier: the boom and bust of early farming in Ireland. Journal of Archaeological Science 51, 181205 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodman, P.C., Andersen, E. & Finlay, N. 1999. Excavations at Ferriter’s Cove, 1983–95: last foragers, first farmers in the Dingle Peninsula. Bray: Wordwell Google Scholar
Woodman, P.C., Finlay, N. & Anderson, E. 2006. The Archaeology of a Collection: the Keiller-Knowles Collection of the National Museum of Ireland. Dublin: Wordwell Google Scholar
Zazzo, A., Saliège, J.-F., Lebon, M., Lepetz, S. & Moreau, C. 2012. Radiocarbon dating of calcined bones: insights from combustion experiments under natural conditions. Radiocarbon 54(3/4), 855866 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zazzo, A., Saliège, J.-F., Person, A. & Boucher, H. 2009. Radiocarbon dating of cremated bones: where does the carbon come from? Radiocarbon 51(2), 601611 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Radiocarbon Dating of a Multi-phase Passage Tomb on Baltinglass Hill, Co. Wicklow, Ireland
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Radiocarbon Dating of a Multi-phase Passage Tomb on Baltinglass Hill, Co. Wicklow, Ireland
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Radiocarbon Dating of a Multi-phase Passage Tomb on Baltinglass Hill, Co. Wicklow, Ireland
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *