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The Age of the ‘Anosovka-Tel’manskaya Culture’ and the Issue of a Late Streletskian at Kostёnki 11, SW Russia

  • Rob Dinnis (a1), Alexander A. Bessudnov (a2), Natasha Reynolds (a3), Katerina Douka (a4), Alexander E. Dudin (a5), Gennady A. Khlopachev (a6), Mikhail V. Sablin (a7), Andrei A. Sinitsyn (a2) and Thomas F.G. Higham (a4)...
Abstract

Triangular, concave-base ‘Streletskian points’ are documented in several assemblages from the Kostёnki complex of Upper Palaeolithic sites in south-western Russia. Some of these assemblages have been argued to evidence very early modern human occupation of Eastern Europe. However, Streletskian points are also recorded from younger contexts, notably at Kostёnki 11, where examples are attributed both to Layer V and the stratigraphically higher Layer III. The apparent relatively young age of Layer III has led some to view it as the latest manifestation of the Streletskian, although its assemblage has also been compared to the non-Streletskian Layer I of Kostёnki 8, with the two described together as the Anosovka-Tel’manskaya Culture.

Radiocarbon dates of 24–23,000 bp (c. 28,500–27,000 cal bp) for a wolf burial associated with Layer III of Kostёnki 11 confirm the layer as younger than other Streletskian assemblages at Kostёnki. New radiocarbon dates for Kostёnki 8 Layer I show that the two layers are broadly contemporary, and that both are close in age to assemblages of Kostёnki’s (Late Gravettian) Kostёnki-Avdeevo Culture. In the light of these new radiocarbon dates the context of the Streletskian point from Kostёnki 11 Layer III is considered. Although firm conclusions are not possible, unresolved stratigraphic problems and the lack of technological context for this single artefact at the very least leave a question mark over its association with other material from the layer.

L’âge de la culture Anosovka-Tel’manskaya et la question d’un streletskien à Kostenki 11, Russie du sud-ouest , de Rob Dinnis, Alexander A. Bessudnov, Natasha Reynolds, Katerina Douka, Alexander E. Dudin, Gennady A. Khlopachev, Mikhail V. Sablin, Andrei A. Sinitsyn, et Thomas F.G. Higham

Des pointes streletskiennes triangulaires à base concave sont documentées dans plusieurs assemblages de sites du paléolithique supérieur du complexe Kostenki en Russie du sud-ouest. On a argumenté que certains de ces assemblages mettaient en évidence une très précoce occupation humaine moderne de l’Europe de l’est. Toutefois, des pointes Streletskiennes sont aussi enregistrées dans des contextes plus jeunes, en particulier à Kostenki 11,où des exemples sont attribués à la fois à la couche V et à la couche III stratigraphiquement plus hautes. L’âge apparemment relativement jeune de la couche III a conduit certains à la considérer comme la dernière manifestation du streletskien, bien que son assemblage ait aussi été comparé à la couche I, non streletskienne,de Kostenki 8, toutes deux ensemble étant décrites comme la culture Anosovka-Tel’manskaya.

Des datations au C14 de 24–23 000 bp (env. 28 500–27 000 cal bp) pour une sépulture de loup associée à la couche III de Kostenki 11 confirment que la couche est plus jeune que d’autres assemblages streletskiens à Kostenki. De nouvelles datations au C14 de la couche I de Kostenki 8 montrent que les couches sont grosso modo contemporaines et que toutes deux sont proches en âge des assemblages de la culture Kostenki-Avdeevo (Gravettien tardif) de Kostenki Le contexte de la pointe streletskienne de la couche III de Kostenki 11est examiné à la lumière de ces nouvelles datations au C14. Bien qu’il ne soit pas possible d’arriver à des conclusions solides, des problèmes stratigraphiques non résolus et le manque de contexte technologique pour cet objet isolé laissent, pour le moins, un point d’interrogation sur son association avec tout autre matériau de cette couche.

Die Zeit der “Anosovka-Tel’manskaya-Kultur” und das Problem eines Späten Streletskiens in Kostёnki 11, Südwest-Russland, von Rob Dinnis, Alexander A. Bessudnov, Natasha Reynolds, Katerina Douka, Alexander E. Dudin, Gennady A. Khlopachev, Mikhail V. Sablin, Andrei A. Sinitsyn, und Thomas F.G. Higham

Dreieckige “Streletskaya-Spitzen” mit konkaver Basis liegen aus mehreren Inventaren spätpaläolithischer Fundplätze des Kostёnki-Komplexes im Südwesten Russlands vor. Von einigen dieser Inventare wird angenommen, dass sie auf eine sehr frühe Besiedlung Osteuropas durch den modernen Menschen hinweisen. Jedoch liegen Streletskaya-Spitzen auch aus jüngeren Kontexten vor, insbesondere von Kostёnki 11, wo Exemplare sowohl der Schicht Layer V als auch dem stratigraphisch höher liegenden Layer III zugeschrieben werden. Das offensichtlich relativ junge Alter von Layer III wird manchmal als die letzte Manifestation des Streletskiens gesehen, obwohl sein Ensemble auch mit derNicht-Streletskien-Schicht Layer I von Kostёnki 8 verglichen wird und beide gemeinsam als Anosovka-Tel’manskaya-Kultur zusammengefasst werden.

Die Radiokarbondaten einer Bestattung eines Wolfes von 24–23.000 bp (ca. 28.500–27.000 cal bp), die mit Layer III von Kostёnki 11 in Verbindung steht, bestätigen, dass diese Schicht jünger ist als andere Streletskaya-Inventare in Kostёnki. Neue Radiokarbondaten für Layer I von Kostёnki 8 zeigen, dass die beiden Schichten tatsächlich in etwa gleichzeitig sind, und dass beide den Inventaren von Kostёnkis spät-gravettienzeitlicher Kostёnki-Avdeevo-Kultur zeitlich nahe sind. Im Licht dieser neuen Radiokarbondaten wird der Kontext der Streletskaya-Spitze aus Layer III vonKostёnki 11 erörtert. Auch wenn sichere Schlussfolgerungen noch nicht möglich sind, setzen ungelöste stratigraphische Probleme und das Fehlen eines technologischen Kontexts für dieses einzelne Artefakt zumindest ein Fragezeichen hinter seinen Zusammenhang mit anderem Material aus dieser Schicht.

La cultura ‘Anosovka-Tel’manskaya’ y el Streletskiense tardío en Kostienki 11, SO de Rusia, por Rob Dinnis, Alexander A. Bessudnov, Natasha Reynolds, Katerina Douka, Alexander E. Dudin, Gennady A. Khlopachev, Mikhail V. Sablin, Andrei A. Sinitsyn, y Thomas F.G. Higham

Las puntas streletskienses triangulares y de base cóncava se documentan en numerosos conjuntos del complejo Kostёnki del Paleolítico Superior en el suroeste de Rusia. Algunos de estos conjuntos se han propuesto como la evidencia más antigua de ocupación de humanos modernos del Este de Europa. Sin embargo, las puntas streletskienses se documentan también en contextos más recientes, especialmente en Kostёnki 11, donde estos ejemplares están adscritos tanto al nivel V como al estratigráficamente superior Nivel III. La aparente cronología relativamente más reciente del Nivel III ha provocado que ésta sea considerada como la última manifestación del Streletskiense, aunque su conjunto también ha sido comparado con el Nivel no Streletskiense de Kostёnki 8, ambos depósitos descritos como Cultura de Anosovka-Tel’manskaya.

Las dataciones de radiocarbono obtenidas de un enterramiento de lobo asociado con el Nivel III de Kostёnki 11, 24–23.000 bp (ca. 28.500–27.000 cal bp), confirman que este nivel es tan reciente como otros conjuntos Streletskienses de Kostёnki. Nuevas dataciones del Nivel I de Kostёnki 8 muestran que los dos niveles son, en líneas generales, contemporáneos y que ambos están cronológicamente cercanos a los conjuntos de la Cultura Kostёnki-Avdeevo (Gravetiense Final) de Kostёnki. A la luz de estas nuevas dataciones de radiocarbono se analiza el contexto de las puntas Streletskienses del Nivel III de Kostёnki 11. Aunque no es posible extraer conclusiones definitivas, los problemas estratigráficos y la falta de contexto tecnológico para este artefacto permite plantear, al menos, dudas sobre su asociación con otros materiales documentados en el nivel.

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Corresponding author: Rob Dinnis Email: rdinnis@britishmuseum.org
References
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Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society
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