Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

The Marlborough Mound, Wiltshire. A Further Neolithic Monumental Mound by the River Kennet

  • Jim Leary (a1), Matthew Canti (a1), David Field, Peter Fowler, Peter Marshall (a2) and Gill Campbell (a1)...
Abstract

Recent radiocarbon dates obtained from two soil cores taken through the Marlborough Castle mound, Wiltshire, show the main body of it to be a contemporaneous monument to Silbury Hill, dating to the second half of the 3rd millennium cal bc. In light of these dates, this paper considers the sequence identified within the cores, which includes two possible flood events early in the construction of the mound. It also describes four cores taken through the surrounding ditch, as well as small-scale work to the north-east of the mound. The topographic location of the mound in a low-lying area and close to rivers and springs is discussed, and the potential for Late Neolithic sites nearby is set out, with the land to the south of the mound identified as an area for future research. The paper ends with the prospect that other apparent mottes in Wiltshire and beyond may well also have prehistoric origins

Copyright
References
Hide All
Anon. 1943. Additions to museum and library. Wiltshire Archaeological & Natural History Society Magazine 50, 203204
Atkinson, R.J.C. 1978. Silbury Hill. In R. Sutcliffe (ed.), Chronicle: essays from ten years of television archaeology, 159173. London: British Broadcasting Corporation
Barber, M., Winton, H., Stoertz, C., Carpenter, E., Martin, L. 2010. The brood of Silbury? A remote look at some other sizeable Wessex mounds. In Leary et al. (eds) 2010, 153–73
Bayliss, A. 2009. Rolling out revolution: using radiocarbon dating in archaeology. Radiocarbon 51, 123147
Bayliss, A., Whittle, A., Healy, F. 2008. Timing, tempo and temporalities in the early Neolithic of southern Britain. In H. Fokkens, B.J. Coles, A.L. van Gijn, J.P. Kleijne, H.H. Ponjee & C.G. Slappendel (eds), Between Foraging and Farming: an extended broad spectrum of papers presented to Leendert Louwe Kooijmans, 26–42. Analecta Praehistorica Leidensia 40
Best, J. 1997. Appendix: the Marlborough Mound. In A. Whittle, Sacred Mound, Holy Rings. Silbury Hill and the West Kennet Palisade Enclosures: a later Neolithic complex in north Wiltshire, 169170. Oxford: Oxbow Books
Bonney, D.J., Dunn, C.J. 1989. Earthwork castles and settlement at Hampstead Marshall, Berkshire. In M. Bowden, D. Mackay & P. Topping (eds), From Cornwall to Caithness: some aspects of British field archaeology, 173182. Oxford: British Archaeological Report 209
Bowden, M.C.B. 2005. The Malvern Hills: an ancient landscape. Swindon: English Heritage
Brentnall, H.C. 1912. The Mound. Report of Marlborough College Natural History Society 61, 2329
Brentnall, H.C. 1914. The Marlborough Castle Mound. Wiltshire Archaeological & Natural History Society Magazine 38, 112
Brentnall, H.C. 1933. Castellum Merlebergae. Report of Marlborough College Natural History Society 82, 60104
Brentnall, H.C. 1935. Marlborough Castle. Wiltshire Archaeological & Natural History Society Magazine 47, 543
Brentnall, H.C. 1936. The curtain wall. Report of Marlborough College Natural History Society 85, 4247
Brentnall, H.C. 1938. Marlborough Castle. Wiltshire Archaeological & Natural History Society Magazine 48, 1112
Brock, F., Higham, T., Ditchfield, P., Bronk Ramsey, C. 2010. Current pretreatment methods for AMS radiocarbon dating at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU). Radiocarbon 52, 103112
Brooke, J.W. 1890. Notes on the finding of Neolithic flints. Reports of the Marlborough College Natural History Society for 1889, 104105
Brooke, J.W. 1891. Notes on Neolithic flints. Reports of the Marlborough College Natural History Society for 1890, 103
Brophy, K. 2010. ‘… a place where they tried their criminals’: Neolithic round mounds in Perth and Kinross. In Leary et al. (eds) 2010, 10–27
Bronk Ramsey, C. 1995. Radiocarbon calibration and analysis of stratigraphy. Radiocarbon 36, 425430
Bronk Ramsey, C. 1998. Probability and dating. Radiocarbon 40, 461474
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2001. Development of the radiocarbon calibration program. Radiocarbon 43, 355363
Bronk Ramsey, C., Higham, T., Leach, P. 2004. Towards high precision AMS: progress and limitations. Radiocarbon 46, 1724
Bronk Ramsey, C. 2009. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 51, 337360
Camden, W. 1610. Brittannia. Trans R. Gough 1806. London: John Stockdale
Canti, M.G., Meddens, F.M. 1998. Mechanical coring as an aid to archaeological projects. Journal of Field Archaeology 25, 97105
Clark, J.G.D. 1924. Notes on the flint implements on Granham Hill and around Pantawick. Report of the Marlborough College Natural History Society 72, 8489
Cleal, R., Montague, R. 2001. Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. In AAHRG, Archaeological Research Agenda for the Avebury World Heritage Site, 819. Salisbury: Wessex Archaeology
Creighton, O.H. 2000. Early castles in the medieval landscape of Wiltshire. Wiltshire Archaeological & Natural History Society Magazine 93, 105119
Darvill, T., Marshall, P., Parker Pearson, M., Wainwright, G. 2012. Stonehenge remodelled. Antiquity 86 (334), 10211040
Eve, A.S. 1892. On recent excavations at Marlborough College. Report of Marlborough College Natural History Society 41, 6569
Field, D. 1999. Field Survey of the Marlborough Mount: an earthen mound at Marlborough College, Wiltshire. Swindon: English Heritage. Unpublished field survey report
Field, D., Martin, L., Winton, H. 2009. The Hatfield Earthworks, Marden, Wiltshire: survey and investigation. Swindon: English Heritage Research Department Report 96-2009
Field, D., Brown, G., Crockett, A. 2001. The Marlborough Mound revisited. Wiltshire Archaeological & Natural History Society Magazine 94, 195204
Gale, R., Cutler, D. 2000. Plants in Archaeology: identification manual of vegetative plant materials used in Europe and the south Mediterranean to c. 1500. Kew: Westbury Publishing & Royal Botanic Gardens
Grinsell, L.V. 1958. The Archaeology of Wessex. London: Methuen
Hale, D., Platell, A., Millard, A. 2009. A Late Neolithic palisaded enclosure at Marne Barracks, Catterick, North Yorkshire. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 75, 265304
Harding, J. 2012. Henges, rivers and exchange in Neolithic Yorkshire. In A.M. Jones, J. Pollard, M.J. Allen & J. Gardiner (eds), Image, Memory and Monumentality. Archaeological Engagements with the Material World, 4351. Oxford: Oxbow Books/Prehistoric Society Research Paper 5
Harrison, E. 2001. Neolithic activity in Ducks Meadow, Marlborough. Wiltshire Archaeological & Natural History Society Magazine 94, 219223
Hather, J. 2000. The Identification of the Northern European Woods: a guide for archaeologists and conservators. London: Archetype
Hayman, P.E.C. 1956. The mound. Report of Marlborough College Natural History Society 97, 1320
Higham, R.A., Barker, P. 1992. Timber Castles. London: Batsford
Hoare, R.C. 1821. The Ancient History of Wiltshire. Vol 2. London: Maver & Lepard
Kinnes, I. 1979. Round Barrows and Ring Ditches in the British Neolithic. London: British Museum Occasional paper 7
Lacaille, A.D. 1971. Wiltshire palaeoliths. British Museum Quarterly 35(1/4), 6987
Leary, J. 2010. Silbury Hill: a monument in motion. In Leary et al. (eds) 2010, 139–52
Leary, J., Field, D. 2010. The Story of Silbury Hill. Swindon: English Heritage
Leary, J., Field, D. 2012. Journeys and juxtapositions. Marden henge and the view from the Vale. In A. Gibson (ed.), Enclosing the Neolithic: recent studies in Britain and Europe, 5565. Oxford: British Archaeological Report S2440
Leary, J., Darvill, T., Field, D. (eds). 2010. Round Mounds and Monumentality in the British Neolithic and Beyond. Oxford: Oxbow Books/Neolithic Studies Group Seminar Papers 10
Leary, J., Field, D., Campbell, G. in press. Silbury Hill: the largest prehistoric mound in Europe. Swindon: English Heritage
Leatherdale, J.D. 1958. Survey of the Preshute watermeadows. Report of Marlborough College Natural History Society for 1957, 1723
Margary, I.D. 1973. Roman Roads in Britain, 3rd edn. London: John Baker
Marshall, P., Darvill, T., Parker Pearson, M., Wainwright, G. 2012. Stonehenge, Amesbury, Wiltshire: chronological modelling. English Heritage Research Report Series 1/2012
Marshall, P., Bayliss, A., Leary, J., Campbell, G., Worley, F., Bronk Ramsey, C., Cook, G. in press. The Silbury chronology. In Leary et al. (eds), in press
Maurice, G.K. 1947. [untitled passage] Blackwoods Magazine January 1947 reprinted. In E.G.H. Kempson & G.W. Murray (eds) Marlborough Town and Countryside. Andoversford: Whittington
McOmish, D., Field, D., Brown, G. 2002. The Field Archaeology of Salisbury Plain Training Area. Swindon: English Heritage
Mook, W.G. 1986. Business meeting: recommendations/resolutions adopted by the Twelfth International Radiocarbon Conference. Radiocarbon 28, 799
Myres, J.N.L. 1932. Three unrecognised mounds at Hampstead Marshall. Transactions of the Newbury District Field Club 6, 114126
Peake, H.T.E. 1906. Ancient earthworks. In W. Page (ed.), The Victoria History of Berkshire 1, 251284. London: St Catherines Press
Reimer, P.J., Baillie, M.G.L., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J.W., Blackwell, P.G., Bronk Ramsey, C., Buck, C.E., Burr, G.S., Edwards, R.L., Friedrich, M., Grootes, P.M., Guilderson, T.P., Hajdas, I., Heaton, T.J., Hogg, A.G., Hughen, K.A., Kaiser, K.F., Kromer, B., McCormac, G., Manning, S., Reimer, R.W., Remmele, S., Richards, D.A., Southon, J.R., Talamo, S., Taylor, F.W., Turney, C.S.M., Plicht, J., van der, , Weyhenmeyer, C.E. 2009. INTCAL09 and MARINE09 radiocarbon age calibration curves, 0–50,000 years cal bp. Radiocarbon 51(4), 11111150
Schweingruber, F. 1982. Microscopic Wood Anatomy: structural variability of stems and twigs in recent and subfossil woods from central Europe. Birmensdorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Forestry Research
Scott, E.M. 2003. The third international radiocarbon intercomparison (TIRI) and the fourth international radiocarbon intercomparison (FIRI) 1990–2002: results, analyses, and conclusions. Radiocarbon 45, 135408
Scott, E.M., Cook, G., Naysmith, P. 2010. The fifth international radiocarbon intercomparison (VIRI): an assessment of laboratory performance in stage 3. Radiocarbon 53, 859865
Slota, P.J. Jr, Jull, A.J.T., Linick, T.W., Toolin, L.J. 1987. Preparation of small samples for 14C accelerator targets by catalytic reduction of CO. Radiocarbon 29, 303306
Stenhouse, M.J., Baxter, M.S. 1983. 14C dating reproducibility: evidence from routine dating of archaeological samples. PACT 8, 147161
Stevenson, J.H. 1983. Preshute. In C.R. Elrington (ed.), Victoria County History: Wiltshire, 12, 160183. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Stukeley, W. 1776. Itinerarium Curiosum. Facsimile edn 1989. Gregg: Farnborough
Stuiver, M., Kra, R.S 1986. Editorial comment. Radiocarbon 28(2B), ii
Stuiver, M., Polach, H.A. 1977. Reporting of 14C data. Radiocarbon 19, 355363
Stuiver, M., Reimer, P.J. 1986. A computer program for radiocarbon age calculation. Radiocarbon 28, 10221030
Stuiver, M., Reimer, P.J. 1993. Extended 14C data base and revised CALIB 3.0 14C age calibration program. Radiocarbon 35, 215230
Thomas, J. 2004. The Later Neolithic architectural repertoire: the case of Dunragit. In R. Cleal & J. Pollard (eds), Monuments and Material Culture: papers in honour of an Avebury archaeologist Isobel Smith, 98108. Salisbury: Hobnob
Toulmin-Smith, L. (ed.). 1964. Leland's Itinerary in England and Wales. London: Centaur
Vandeputte, K., Moens, L., Dams, R. 1996. Improved sealed-tube combustion of organic samples to CO2 for stable isotope analysis, radiocarbon dating and percent carbon determinations. Analytical Letters 29(15), 27612773
Ward, G.K., Wilson, S.R. 1978. Procedures for comparing and combining radiocarbon age determinations: a critique. Archaeometry 20, 1931
Whitehead, P.G., Edmunds, W.M. 2012. Modelling and reconstruction of the River Kennet palaeohydrology and hydrogeology: Silbury Hill and Avebury in 4,400 bp. Hydrology Research 43(5), 551559
Wymer, J. (ed.). 1977. Gazetteer of Mesolithic sites in England and Wales. London: Council for British Archaeology Research Report 20
Xu, S., Anderson, R., Bryant, C., Cook, G.T., Dougans, A., Freeman, S., Naysmith, P., Schnabel, C., Scott, E.M. 2004. Capabilities of the new SUERC 5MV AMS facility for 14C dating. Radiocarbon 46, 5964
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society
  • ISSN: 0079-497X
  • EISSN: 2050-2729
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-prehistoric-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed