Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-tj2md Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-19T00:01:51.268Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Field Experiments on Gender: Where the Personal and Political Collide

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 May 2022

Alexandra C. Hartman
University College London, UK
Sarah Khan
Yale University, USA
Milli Lake
London School of Economics, UK
Sabrina Karim
Cornell University, USA
Ali Cheema
Lahore University of Management Sciences and Institute of Development and Economic Alternatives, Pakistan
Asad Liaqat
Independent Researcher, USA
Shandana Khan Mohmand
Institute of Development Studies, UK


Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Field Experiments: Thinking Through Identity and Positionality
© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the American Political Science Association

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



Bandiera, Oriana, Buehren, Niklas, Burgess, Robin, Goldstein, Markus, Gulesci, Selim, Rasul, Imran, and Sulaiman, Munshi. 2020. “Women’s Empowerment in Action: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial in Africa.” American Economic Journal: Applied Economics (12) 1: 210–59.Google Scholar
Beath, Andrew, Christia, Fotini, and Enikolopov, Ruben. 2013. “Empowering Women through Development Aid: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Afghanistan.” American Political Science Review 107 (3): 540–57. DOI:10.1017/S0003055413000270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berry, Marie E. 2018. War, Women, and Power: From Violence to Mobilization in Rwanda and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burns, Nancy. 2005. “Finding Gender.” Politics & Gender 1 (1): 137.Google Scholar
Butler, Judith. 2004. Undoing Gender. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Chattopadhyay, Raghabendra, and Duflo, Esther. 2004. “Women as Policy Makers: Evidence from a Randomized Policy Experiment in India.” Econometrica 72 (5): 1409–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheema, Ali, Khan, Sarah, Liaqat, Asad, and Mohmand, Shandana Khan. 2021. “Canvassing the Gatekeepers: A Field Experiment to Increase Women’s Voter Turnout in Pakistan.” Working Paper.Google Scholar
Clayton, Amanda, and Anderson-Nilsson, Georgia. 2021. “Gender Experiments in Comparative Politics.” In Advances in Experimental Political Science, ed. Green, Donald and Druckman, James, 485508. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Donald, Alethia, Goldstein, Markus, Hartman, Alexandra, La Ferrara, Eliana, and O’Sullivan, Michael. 2020. “What’s Mine Is Yours: Evidence on Property Rights and Women’s Empowerment in Côte d’Ivoire.” Washington, DC: World Bank, Gender Innovation Lab.Google Scholar
Doss, Cheryl, Kovarik, Chiara, Peterman, Amber, Quisumbing, Agnes, and van den Bold, Mara. 2015. “Gender Inequalities in Ownership and Control of Land in Africa: Myth and Reality.” Agricultural Economics 46:403–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
England, Kim. 1994. “Getting Personal: Reflexivity, Positionality, and Feminist Research.” Professional Geographer 46 (1): 8089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frazer, Michael L. 2020. “Respect for Subjects in the Ethics of Causal and Interpretive Social Explanation.” American Political Science Review 114 (4): 1001–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fujii, Lee Ann. 2017. Interviewing in Social Science Research: A Relational Approach. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Henry, Marsha. 2004. ‘“Where Are You Really From?’ Representation, Identity, and Power in the Fieldwork Experiences of a South Asian Diasporic.” Qualitative Research 3 (2): 229–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holdcroft, Anita. 2007. “Gender Bias in Research: How Does It Affect Evidence-Based Medicine?Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 100 (1): 23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoogendoorn, Sander, Oosterbeek, Hessel, and Van Praag, Mirjam. 2013. “The Impact of Gender Diversity on the Performance of Business Teams: Evidence from a Field Experiment.” Management Science 59 (7): 1514–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Htun, Mala. 2005. “What It Means to Study Gender and the State.” Politics & Gender 1 (1): 157.Google Scholar
Humphreys, Macartan. 2015. “Reflections on the Ethics of Social Experimentation.” Journal of Globalization and Development 6 (1): 87112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karim, Sabrina. 2020. “Relational State Building in Areas of Limited Statehood: Experimental Evidence on the Attitudes of the Police.” American Political Science Review 114 (2): 536–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Karim, Sabrina, Gilligan, Michael J., Blair, Robert, and Beardsley, Kyle. 2018. “International Gender Balancing Reforms in Post-Conflict Countries: Lab-in-the-Field Evidence from the Liberian National Police.” International Studies Quarterly 62 (3): 618–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kumar, Neha, Nguyen, Phuong Hong, Harris, Jody, Harvey, Danny, Rawat, Rahul, and Ruel, Marie T.. 2018. “What It Takes: Evidence from a Nutrition- and Gender-Sensitive Agriculture Intervention in Rural Zambia.” Journal of Development Effectiveness 10 (3): 341–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lewis, Chloe, Banga, Alfred, Cimuka, Ghislain, de Dieu Hategekimana, Jean, Lake, Milli, and Pierotti, Rachael. 2019. “Walking the Line: Brokering Humanitarian Identity in Conflict Research.” Civil Wars 21 (2): 200227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loftsdottir, Kirstin. 2002. “Never Forgetting? Gender and Racial–Ethnic Identity during Fieldwork.” Social Anthropology 10 (3): 315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mullings, Beverley. 1999. “Insider or Outsider, Both or Neither: Some Dilemmas of Interviewing in a Cross-Cultural Setting.” Geoforum 30:337–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Narayan, Kirin. 1993. “How Native Is a ‘Native’ Anthropologist?American Anthropologist 95 (3): 671–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naritomi, Joana, Sequeira, Sandra, Weigel, Jonathan, and Weinhold, Diana. 2020. “RCTs as an Opportunity to Promote Interdisciplinary, Inclusive, and Diverse Quantitative Development Research.” World Development 127 (6236):104832. DOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2019.104832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pierotti, Rachael, Lake, Milli, and Lewis, Chloe. 2018. “Equality on His Terms: Doing and Undoing Gender Through Men’s Discussion Groups.” Gender & Society 32:4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pritchett, Lant, and Sandefur, Justin. 2015. “Learning from Experiments When Context Matters.” American Economic Review 105 (5): 471–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanghera, Gurchathen, and Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi. 2008. “Methodological Dilemmas: Gatekeepers and Positionality in Bradford.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 31 (3): 543–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soedirgo, Jessica, and Glas, Aarie. 2020. “Toward Active Reflexivity: Positionality and Practice in the Production of Knowledge.” PS: Political Science & Politics 53 (3): 527–31.Google Scholar
Teele, Dawn. 2021. “Virtual Consent: The Bronze Standard for Experimental Ethics.” In Advances in Experimental Political Science, ed. Druckman, James and Green, Donald, 130–47. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar