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Adherence to food-based dietary guidelines and evaluation of nutrient intake in 7-year-old children

  • Asa Gudrun Kristjansdottir (a1) and Inga Thorsdottir (a1)
Abstract
Objective

To evaluate the diet of 7-year-old children by comparison with food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) and reference values for nutrient intake.

Design

Food and nutrient intake was assessed by 3 d weighed dietary records of 7-year-olds in six randomly chosen schools in Reykjavik, Iceland. Height and weight were measured. The diet of 165 children (62 % of sample) was evaluated by the Icelandic FBDG and the Nordic reference values (NRV) for nutrient intake.

Setting

Six randomly chosen schools in Reykjavik, Iceland.

Results

The FBDG on fruits and vegetables was reached by less than 20 % of the children. A total of 52 % reached the FBDG to eat fish twice a week and 41 % to use vitamin D supplement. The FBDG on dairy was reached by 66 % of the children. Mean intake of SFA gave 13·9 % of the total energy intake (E%), which is higher than the NRV, 9·3E% of MUFA and 3·8E% of PUFA, both lower than the NRV (for all differences P < 0·001). Added sugar gave 12·1E%, which exceeds the upper level (P < 0·001). Fibre intake was 2·1 g/MJ and lower than the NRV (P < 0·001). Mean intake of micronutrients was above the recommended intake (RI), except for iodine, 109·0 μg/d, and vitamin D, 6·1 μg/d, which was lower than the RI (P = 0·006 and P < 0·001, respectively).

Conclusions

Fruit, vegetable, fish and dairy, as well as vitamin D supplement, need to be increased in the diet of 7-year-old children to reach the FBDG and the reference values for nutrient intake. Dietary changes to increase the quality of fat and carbohydrate are needed as well.

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Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email ingathor@landspitali.is
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