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An accelerated nutrition transition in Iran

  • Hossein Ghassemi (a1), Gail Harrison (a2) and Kazem Mohammad (a3)
Abstract:
Objective:

To describe the emergence of the nutrition transition, and associated morbidity shifts, in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Design:

Review and analysis of secondary data relating to the socio-political and nutritional context, demographic trends, food utilisation and consumption patterns, obesity, and diet-related morbidity.

Results and conclusions:

The nutrition transition in Iran is occurring rapidly, secondary to the rapid change in fertility and mortality patterns and to urbanisation. The transition is occurring against the backdrop of lack of sustained economicgrowth. There is considerable imbalance in food consumption with low nutrient density characterising diets at all income levels, over-consumption evident among more than a third of households, and food insecurity among 20% of the population. Obesity is an emerging problem, particularly in urban areas and for women, and both diabetes and other risk factors for heart disease are becoming significant problems.

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Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Emailgailh@ucla.edu
References
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1Islamic Republic of Iran. Country Report on Population, Reproductive Health and Family Planning Program in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Tehran: Islamic Republic of Iran, February 1998.
2Ghassemi, H. Food and Nutrition Security in Iran: A Study on Planning and Administration. Tehran: Plan and Budget Organization, Islamic Republic of Iran, April 1997 [original in Persian, English translation dated September 1997].
3Ghassemi, H. National Food and Nutrition Security: A Note on Planning and Administration. Tehran: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, representation in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 2000.
4Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The State of Food and Agriculture 1998. FAO Agriculture Series No. 31. Rome: FAO, 1998.
5United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Human Development Report 2000. New York: UNDP, 2001.
6The World Bank. World Development Indicators 1998. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 1999.
7Zoonoz, FB. In: Rais Dana, F, ed. Poverty in Iran. Proceedings of a Seminar, Behzisti University, Tehran, 2000.
8United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)/Tehran. Overcoming Iodine Deficiency in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Tehran: UNICEF/Tehran, 2000.
9Ministry of Health and Medical Education and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)/Tehran. The Multiple Health Indicator Cluster Survey of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 23–27 September 1995. Tehran: UNICEF/Tehran, 1996.
10Nour Balaa, AA, Mohammad, K. Second National Health Survey in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Tehran: Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Undersecretary for Research, 2001.
11Omidvar, N, Ghazi-Tabatabie, M, Harrison, GG, Egtesadi, S, Mahboob, S, Pourbakht, M. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for screening vitamin A status in women of childbearing age in northwestern Iran. Food Nutr. Bull. [in press].
12Pajouyan, J. In: Ghassemi, H. Food and Nutrition Security in Iran: A National Study on Planning and Administration. Tehran: Plan and Budget Organization, Islamic Republic of Iran, 1998.
13Zali, MR, Mohammad, K, Masdjedi, MR. National Health Survey in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Tehran: Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Undersecretary for Research Affairs, 1993.
14Ghassemi, H, Kimiagar, M, Koupahi, M. Food and Nutrition Security in Tehran Province. Tehran: National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, 1996.
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Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
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