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Association of coffee drinking with all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Yimin Zhao (a1) (a2), Kejian Wu (a1) (a2), Jusheng Zheng (a1) (a2), Ruiting Zuo (a1) (a2) and Duo Li (a1) (a2)...

We aimed to use the meta-analysis method to assess the relationship between coffee drinking and all-cause mortality.


Categorical and dose–response meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects models.


We systematically searched and identified eligible literature in the PubMed and Scopus databases.


Seventeen studies including 1 054 571 participants and 131 212 death events from all causes were included in the present study.


Seventeen studies were included and evaluated in the meta-analysis. A U-shaped dose–response relationship was found between coffee consumption and all-cause mortality (P for non-linearity <0·001). Compared with non/occasional coffee drinkers, the relative risks for all-cause mortality were 0·89 (95 % CI 0·85, 0·93) for 1–<3 cups/d, 0·87 (95 % CI 0·83, 0·91) for 3–<5 cups/d and 0·90 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·94) for ≥5 cups/d, and the relationship was more marked in females than in males.


The present meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies indicated that light to moderate coffee intake is associated with a reduced risk of death from all causes, particularly in women.

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