Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Australia’s evolving food practices: a risky mix of continuity and change

  • Danielle Venn (a1), Cathy Banwell (a1) and Jane Dixon (a1)
Abstract
Objective

To investigate trends in five key aspects of Australian food practice which have been implicated in diet-related health risks, specifically energy intake. They are: the replacement of home-prepared foods by commercially prepared foods; consumer reliance on ultra-processed foods; de-structured dining; increased pace of eating; and a decline in commensal eating.

Design

Data were from repeated cross-sections from the national Household Expenditure and Time Use Surveys. Trends in food practice aspects were examined using indicators of food expenditure across different food groups and time spent eating and cooking, including where, when and with whom eating activities took place.

Setting

Australia, 1989–2010.

Subjects

Nationally representative samples of Australian households.

Results

The share of the total food budget spent on food away from home rose steadily from 22·8 % in 1989 to 26·5 % in 2010, while spending on ultra-processed foods increased. The basic patterning of meals and the pace of eating changed little, although people spent more time eating alone and at restaurants. Cooking time declined considerably, particularly for women.

Conclusions

These changes have occurred over the same time that obesity and diet-related, non-communicable diseases have increased rapidly in Australia. Some aspects are implicated more than others: particularly the shift from domestic cooking to use of pre-prepared and ultra-processed foods, a reduction in time spent in food preparation and cooking, as well as an upsurge in time and money devoted to eating away from home. These are all likely to operate through the higher energy content of commercially prepared, compared with unprocessed or lightly processed, foods.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Australia’s evolving food practices: a risky mix of continuity and change
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Australia’s evolving food practices: a risky mix of continuity and change
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Australia’s evolving food practices: a risky mix of continuity and change
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Email cathy.banwell@anu.edu.au
References
Hide All
1. NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (2016) Worldwide trends in diabetes since 1980: a pooled analysis of 751 population-based studies with 4.4 million participants. Lancet 387, 15131530.
2. NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (2016) Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants. Lancet 387, 13771396.
3. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2014) Obesity Update. http://www.oecd.org/health/Obesity-Update-2014.pdf (accessed April 2016).
4. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2013) Australian Health Survey: Updated Results, 2011–12. ABS Catalogue no. 4364.0.55.004. Canberra: ABS.
5. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2013) Australian Health Survey: Biomedical Results for Chronic Diseases, 2011–2012. ABS Catalogue no. 4364.0.55.005. Canberra: ABS.
6. Popkin, B & Gordon-Larsen, P (2004) The nutrition transition: worldwide obesity dynamics and their determinants. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, Suppl. 3, S2S9.
7. Godfray, HCJ, Beddington, JR, Crute, IR et al. (2010) Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science 327, 812818.
8. Murphy, S (2016) International trade, food security and nutrition. In Routledge Handbook on Food and Nutrition Security, pp. 268282 [B Pritchard, R Ortiz and M Shekar, editors]. Abingdon: Routledge.
9. Winson, A (2013) The Industrial Diet: The Degradation of Food and the Struggle for Healthy Eating. New York: New York University Press.
10. Hawkes, C (2008) Dietary implications of supermarket development: a global perspective. Dev Policy Rev 26, 657692.
11. Stuckler, D & Nestle, M (2012) Big food, food systems, and global health. PLoS Med 9, e1001242.
12. Holm, L (2013) Sociology of food and consumption. In The Handbook of Food Research, pp. 324337 [A Murchott, W Belasco and P Jackson, editors]. London: Bloomsbury.
13. Warde, A (2014) After taste: culture, consumption and theories of practice. J Consum Cult 14, 279303.
14. Reckwitz, A (2002) Towards a theory of social practices: a development in culturalist theorizing. Eur J Soc Theor 5, 243263.
15. Warde, A (2005) Consumption and theories of practice. J Consum Cult 5, 131153.
16. Dixon, J (2016) The socio-economic and socio-cultural determinants of food and nutrition security in developed countries. In Routledge Handbook on Food and Nutrition Security, pp. 379390 [B Pritchard, R Ortiz and M Shekar, editors]. Abingdon: Routledge.
17. Smith, LP, Ng, SW & Popkin, BM (2013) Trends in US home food preparation and consumption: analysis of national nutrition surveys and time use studies from 1965–1966 to 2007–2008. Nutr J 12, 45.
18. Warde, A, Cheng, S-L, Olsen, W et al. (2007) Changes in the practice of eating a comparative analysis of time-use. Acta Sociol 50, 363385.
19. Cheng, SL, Olsen, W, Southerton, D et al. (2007) The changing practice of eating: evidence from UK time diaries, 1975 and 2001. Br J Sociol 58, 3961.
20. Juul, F & Hemmingsson, E (2015) Trends in consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity in Sweden between 1960 and 2010. Public Health Nutr 18, 30963107.
21. Poulain, JP (2002) The contemporary diet in France: ‘de-structuration’ or from commensalism to ‘vagabond feeding’. Appetite 39, 4355.
22. Kant, AK & Graubard, BI (2015) 40-year trends in meal and snack eating behaviors of American adults. J Acad Nutr Diet 115, 5063.
23. Pliner, P & Bell, R (2009) A table for one: the pain and pleasure of eating alone. In Meals in Science and Practice: Interdisciplinary Research and Business Applications, pp. 169189 [HL Meiselman, editor]. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd.
24. Mestdag, I (2005) Disappearance of the traditional meal: temporal, social and spatial destructuration. Appetite 45, 6274.
25. Burns, C, Jackson, M, Gibbons, C et al. (2002) Foods prepared outside the home: association with selected nutrients and body mass index in adult Australians. Public Health Nutr 5, 441448.
26. Bezerra, IN, de Moura Souza, A, Pereira, RA et al. (2013) Contribution of foods consumed away from home to energy intake in Brazilian urban areas: the 2008–9 Nationwide Dietary Survey. Br J Nutr 109, 12761283.
27. Drewnowski, A & Rehm, CD (2013) Energy intakes of US children and adults by food purchase location and by specific food source. Nutr J 12, 59.
28. Mancino, L, Todd, J & Lin, B-H (2009) Separating what we eat from where: measuring the effect of food away from home on diet quality. Food Policy 34, 557562.
29. McGuire, S (2011) Todd J.E., Mancino L., Lin B-H. The impact of food away from home on adult diet quality. ERR-90, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Econ. Res. Serv., February 2010. Adv Nutr 2, 442443.
30. Moubarac, J-C, Martins, APB, Claro, RM et al. (2013) Consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health. Evidence from Canada. Public Health Nutr 16, 22402248.
31. Monteiro, CA (2009) Nutrition and health. The issue is not food, nor nutrients, so much as processing. Public Health Nutr 12, 729731.
32. Ovaskainen, ML, Reinivuo, H, Tapanainen, H et al. (2005) Snacks as an element of energy intake and food consumption. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 494501.
33. Kerver, JM, Yang, EJ, Obayashi, S et al. (2006) Meal and snack patterns are associated with dietary intake of energy and nutrients in US adults. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 4653.
34. Viskaal-van Dongen, M, Kok, FJ & de Graaf, C (2011) Eating rate of commonly consumed foods promotes food and energy intake. Appetite 56, 2531.
35. Rozin, P, Kabnick, K, Pete, E et al. (2003) The ecology of eating: smaller portion sizes in France than in the United States help explain the French paradox. Psychol Sci 14, 450454.
36. Andrade, AM, Greene, GW & Melanson, KJ (2008) Eating slowly led to decreases in energy intake within meals in healthy women. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 11861191.
37. Leong, SL, Madden, C, Gray, A et al. (2011) Faster self-reported speed of eating is related to higher body mass index in a nationwide survey of middle-aged women. J Am Diet Assoc 111, 11921197.
38. Sobal, J & Nelson, MK (2003) Commensal eating patterns: a community study. Appetite 41, 181190.
39. Fischler, C (2011) Commensality, society and culture. Soc Sci Inform 50, 528548.
40. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2012) Household Expenditure Survey and Survey of Income and Housing, User Guide, Australia 2009–10. Canberra: ABS.
41. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2008) Time Use Survey: User Guide 2006. Canberra: ABS.
42. Monteiro, CA, Levy, RB, Claro, RM et al. (2010) A new classification of foods based on the extent and purpose of their processing. Cad Saude Publica 26, 20392049.
43. Moubarac, J-C, Parra, DC, Cannon, G et al. (2014) Food classification systems based on food processing: significance and implications for policies and actions: a systematic literature review and assessment. Curr Obes Rep 3, 256272.
44. Monteiro, CA, Levy, RB, Claro, RM et al. (2011) Increasing consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health: evidence from Brazil. Public Health Nutr 14, 513.
45. Smith, C, Gray, AR, Mainvil, LA et al. (2015) Secular changes in intakes of foods among New Zealand adults from 1997 to 2008/09. Public Health Nutr 18, 32493259.
46. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2016) Consumer Price Index, Australia, December 2015. Canberra: ABS.
47. Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences (2014) Agricultural Commodity Statistics 2014. Canberra: ABARES.
48. James, WP (2008) The epidemiology of obesity: the size of the problem. J Intern Med 263, 336352.
49. Finlay, R (2012) The distribution of household wealth in Australia: evidence from the 2010 HILDA Survey. RBA Bull March Quarter 2012, 1927. http://www.rba.gov.au/publications/bulletin/2012/mar/pdf/bu-0312-3.pdf (accessed April 2016).
50. Jaaskala, J & Windsor, C (2011) Insights from the household expenditure survey. RBA Bull December Quarter 2011, 112. http://www.rba.gov.au/publications/bulletin/2011/dec/pdf/bu-1211-1.pdf (accessed April 2016).
51. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2016) Labour Force, Australia. ABS Catalogue no. 6202.0. Canberra: ABS.
52. Waskink, B (2004) Environmental factors that increase the food intake and consumption volume of unknowing consumers. Annu Rev Nutr 24, 455479.
53. Banwell, C, Broom, D, Davies, A et al. (2012) Weight of Modernity: An Intergenerational Study of the Rise of Obesity. Dordrecht: Springer.
54. Lund, TB & Gronow, J (2014) Destructuration or continuity? The daily rhythm of eating in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1997 and 2012. Appetite 82, 143153.
55. Leong, SL, Gray, A & Horwath, CC (2016) Speed of eating and 3-year BMI change: a nationwide prospective study of mid-age women. Public Health Nutr 19, 463469.
56. Australian Bureau of Statistics (1988) Census of Housing and Population 1986. ABS Catalogue no. 2102.0. Canberra: ABS.
57. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2015) 2011 Census QuickStats. http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2011/quickstat/0 (accessed July 2016).
58. Herman, CP (2015) The social facilitation of eating. A review. Appetite 86, 6173.
59. Baker, D, Fear, J & Denniss, R (2009) What a Waste: An Analysis of Household Expenditure on Food. Policy Brief no 6. Canberra: The Australia Institute.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Venn supplementary material
Venn supplementary material 1

 Word (14 KB)
14 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed