Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Beverage intake patterns of Canadian children and adolescents

  • Adrienne D Danyliw (a1), Hassanali Vatanparast (a1), Nooshin Nikpartow (a1) and Susan J Whiting (a1)
Abstract
AbstractObjective

Little is known of the beverage intake patterns of Canadian children or of characteristics within these patterns. The objective was to determine beverage intake patterns among Canadian children and compare intakes of fourteen types of beverages, along with intakes of vitamin C and Ca, and sociodemographic factors across clusters.

Design

Dietary information was collected using one 24 h recall. Sociodemographic data were collected by interview. Cluster analysis was used to determine beverage intake patterns. Pearson's χ2 and 95 % CI were used to test differences across clusters.

Setting

Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2·2.

Subjects

Children aged 2–18 years with plausible energy intake and complete sociodemographic data (n 10 038) were grouped into the following categories: 2–5-year-old boys and girls, 6–11-year-old girls, 6–11-year-old boys, 12–18-year-old girls and 12–18-year-old boys.

Results

Five beverage clusters emerged for children aged 2–5 years, six clusters for children aged 6–11 years (both sexes) and four clusters for those aged 12–18 years (both sexes). Sweetened beverage clusters appeared in all age–sex groups. Intakes of sweetened beverages ranged from 553 to 1059 g/d and contributed between 2 % and 18 % of total energy intake. Girls 6–11 years of age in the ‘soft drink’ cluster had lower Ca intake compared with other clusters in that age–sex group. Age and ethnicity differed across clusters for most age–sex groups. Differences for household food security status and income were found; however, no pattern emerged.

Conclusions

Patterns in beverage intake among Canadian children include beverages that are predominantly sugar sweetened. Public health nutrition professionals can use knowledge about beverage patterns among children, as well as the characteristics of these groups, in the development of nutritional programmes and policies.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Beverage intake patterns of Canadian children and adolescents
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Beverage intake patterns of Canadian children and adolescents
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Beverage intake patterns of Canadian children and adolescents
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email susan.whiting@usask.ca
References
Hide All
1.Popkin BM, Armstrong LE, Bray GM et al. (2006) A new proposed guidance system for beverage consumption in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 529542.
2.Rivera JA, Munoz-Hernandez O, Rosas-Peralta M et al. (2008) Beverage consumption for a healthy life: recommendations for the Mexican population. Salud Publica Mex 50, 173195.
3.Health Canada (2007) Eating Well With Canada's Food Guide. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/food-guide-aliment/index-eng.php (accessed January 2009).
4.Rao G (2008) Childhood obesity: highlights of AMA Expert Committee recommendations. Am Fam Physician 78, 5663.
5.Committee on Nutrition (2001) American Academy of Pediatrics: the use and misuse of fruit juice in pediatrics. Pediatrics 107, 12101213.
6.Popkin BM (2010) Patterns of beverage use across the lifecycle. Physiol Behav 100, 49.
7.Wang YC, Bleich SN & Gortmaker SL (2008) Increasing caloric contribution from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juices among US children and adolescents, 1988–2004. Pediatrics 121, e1604e1614.
8.Statistics Canada (2008) Food Statistics. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/21-020-x/21-020-x2008001-eng.htm (accessed July 2009).
9.Blanton CA, Moshfegh AJ, Baer DJ et al. (2006) The USDA automated multiple-pass method accurately estimates group total energy and nutrient intake. J Nutr 136, 25942599.
10.Health Canada (2006) Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 2·2 Nutrition (2004) – a guide to accessing and interpreting the data. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/surveill/nutrition/commun/cchs_guide_escc-eng.php (accessed October 2010).
11.Statistics Canada (2008) Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) – Cycle 2.2 (2004): Nutrition – General Health (including vitamin & mineral supplements) & 24-hour dietary recall components: User Guide. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/document/5049_D24_T9_V1-eng.pdf (accessed January 2011).
12.Statistics Canada (2009) Canadian Community Health Survey – Nutrition (CCHS): Detailed information for 2004 (Cycle 2·2). http://www.statcan.gc.ca/cgi-bin/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=5049&lang=en&db=imdb&adm=8&dis=22 (accessed June 2010).
13.LaRowe TL, Moeller SM & Adams AK (2007) Beverage patterns, diet quality, and body mass index of us preschool and school-aged children. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 11241133.
14.O'Connor TM, Yang S & Nicklas TA (2006) Beverage intake among preschool children and its effect on weight status. Pediatrics 118, e1010e1018.
15.SAS Institute Inc. (2009) SAS/STAT(R) 9·2 User's Guide. http://support.sas.com/documentation/cdl/en/statug/59654/HTML/default/fastclus_toc.htm (accessed April 2009).
16.Moeller SM, Reedy J, Millen AE et al. (2007) Dietary patterns: challenges and opportunities in dietary patterns research an experimental biology workshop. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 12331239.
17.Garriguet D (2008) Beverage consumption of children and teens. Health Reports 19, 16.
18.Sanigorski AM, Bell AC & Swinburn BA (2007) Association of key foods and beverages with obesity in Australian schoolchildren. Public Health Nutr 10, 152157.
19.Libuda L & Kersting M (2009) Soft drinks and body weight development in childhood: is there a relationship? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 12, 596600.
20.Libuda L, Alexy U, Sichert-Hellert W et al. (2008) Pattern of beverage consumption and long-term association with body-weight status in German adolescents-results from the DONALD study. Br J Nutr 99, 13701379.
21.Vartanian LR, Schwartz MB & Brownell KD (2007) Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Public Health 97, 667675.
22.Rodriguez-Artalejo F, Garcia EL, Gorgojo L et al. (2003) Consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt among children aged 6–7 years: association with nutrient intake and overall diet quality. Br J Nutr 89, 419429.
23.Institute of Medicine (2011) Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; available at http://www.nap.edu
24.Keller KL, Kirzner J, Pietrobelli A et al. (2009) Increased sweetened beverage intake is associated with reduced milk and calcium intake in 3- to 7-year-old children at multi-item laboratory lunches. J Am Diet Assoc 109, 497501.
25.Libuda L, Alexy U, Remer T et al. (2008) Association between long-term consumption of soft drinks and variables of bone modeling and remodeling in a sample of healthy German children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 16701677.
26.Institute of Medicine (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; available at http://www.nap.edu
27.Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; available at http://www.nap.edu
28.Moshfegh AJ, Rhodes DG, Baer DJ et al. (2008) The US Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method reduces bias in the collection of energy intakes. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 324332.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 191 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 177 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.