This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1Consensus Development Conference. Diagnosis, prophy-laxis and treatment of osteoporosis. Amer. J. Med. 1993; 94: 646–650.
3 JA Kanis , LJ Melton , C Christiansen , The diagnosis of osteoporosis. J. Bone Min. Res. 1994; 9: 1137–1141.
4 L Elffors , E Allander , JA Kanis , The variable incidence of hip fracture in Southern Europe; the MEDOS study. Osteoporosis Int. 1994; 4: 253–263.
5 WE Bacon , S Maggi , A Looker , International comparison of hip fracture rates in 1988–89. Osteoporosis Int. 1996; 6: 69–75.
8 TW O'Neill , D Felsenberg , J Varlow , The prevalence of vertebral deformity in European men and women: the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Min. Res. 1996; 11: 1010–1018.
9 GS Cooper . Genetic studies of osteoporosis: what have we learned. J Bone Min. Res. 1999; 14: 1646–1648.
10 MC Chapuy , P Preziosi , M Maamer , Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in an adult normal population. Osteoporosis Int. 1997; 7: 439–443.
11 JD Ringe . Vitamin D deficiency and osteopathies. Osteoporosis Int. 1998; 8: S35–S39.
12 O Sahota , T Masud , P San , Vitamin D insufficiency increases bone turnover markers and enhances bone loss at the hip in the patients with established vertebral osteoporosis. Clin. Endocrinol. 1999; 51: 217–221.
13 MJ Valimaki , M Karkkainen , C Lamberg-Allardt , Exercise, smoking, and calcium intake during adolescence and early adulthood as determinants of peak bone mass. Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study Group. BMJ 1994; 309: 230–235.
16 SR Cummings , DM Black , MC Nevitt , Bone density at various sites for prediction of hip fractures. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures research Group. Lancet 1993; 341: 72–75.
19 B Kanders , DW Dempster , R Lindsay . Interaction of calcium nutrition and physical activity on bone mass in young women. J. Bone Min. Res. 1988; 3: 145–149.
20 CC Johnston , JZ Miller , CW Slemenda , Calcium supplementation and increases in bone mineral density in children. N. Engl. J. Med. 1992; 327: 82–87.
24 B Dawson-Hughes , SS Harris , EA Krall , Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N. Engl. J. Med. 1997; 337: 670–676.
25 B Dawson-Hughes , GE Dallal , EA Krall , A controlled trial of the effect of calcium supplementation on bone density in postmenopausal women. N. Engl. J. Med. 1990; 323: 878–883.
26 PJ Elders , P Lips , JC Netelenbos , Long-term effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in perimenopausal women. J. Bone Min. Res. 1994; 9: 963–970.
28 R Eastell , AL Yergey , NE Vieira , Interrelationships among vitamin D metabolism, true calcium absorption, parathyroid function, and age in women: evidence of an age-related intestinal resistance to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D action. J. Bone Min. Res. 1991; 6: 125–132.
29 HK Kinyamu , JC Gallagher , JA Knezetic , Effect of vitamin D receptor genotypes on calcium absorption, duodenal vitamin D receptor concentration, and serum 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D levels in normal women. Calcif. Tissue Int. 1997; 60: 491–495.
30 M Peacock . Effect of calcium and vitamin D insufficiency on the skeleton. Osteoporosis Int. 1998; 8: S45–S51.
31 WR McKane , S Khosla , KS Egan , Role of calcium intake in modulating age-related increases in parathyroid function and bone resorption. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1996; 81: 1699–1703.
32 J Compston . The role of vitamin D and calcium supplementation in the prevention of osteoporosis fractures in the elderly. Clin. Endocrinol. 1995; 43: 393–405.
34 JC Ruiz , C Mandel , M Garabedian . Influence of spontaneous calcium intake and physical exercise on the vertebral and femoral bone mineral density of children and adolescents. J. Bone Min. Res. 1995; 10: 675–682.
35 L Mosekilde . Osteoporosis and exercise. Bone 1995; 17: 193–195.
36 R Prince , A Devine , I Dick , The effects of calcium supplementation (milk powder or tablets) and exercise on bone density in postmenopausal women. J. Bone Min. Res. 1995; 10: 1068–1075.
37 JA Kanis , O Johnell , B Gullberg , Evidence for the efficacy of drugs affecting bone metabolism in preventing hip fracture. BMJ 1992; 305: 1124–1128.
38 RR Recker , S Hinders , KM Davies , Correcting calcium nutritional deficiency prevents spine fractures in elderly women. J. Bone Min. Res. 1996; 11: 1961–1966.
43 C Gennari , D Agnusdei , P Nardi , Estrogen preserves a normal intestinal responsiveness to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in oophorectomized women. J Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1990; 71: 1288–1293.
44 HA Morris , AG Need , M Horowitz , Calcium absorption in normal and osteoporotic postmenopausal women. Calcif. Tissue Int. 1991; 49: 240–243.
45 P Lips , A Wiersinga , FC Van Ginkel , The effect of vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D status and parathyroid function in elderly subjects. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1988; 67: 644–650.
46 SH Scharla . Prevalence of subclinical vitamin D deficiency in different European countries. Osteoporosis Int. 1998; 8: S7–S12.
47 MJ McKenna . Differences in vitamin D status between countries in young adults and the elderly. Am. J. Med. 1992; 93: 69–77.
48 RP Van Der Widen , MR Lowik , H Van Der Berg , Serum vitamin D concentrations among elderly people in Europe. Lancet 1995; 346: 207–210.
49 MC Chapuy , AM Schott , P Garnero , Healthy elderly French women living at home have secondary hyperparathyroidism and high bone turnover in winter. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1996; 81: 1129–1133.
50 PJ Meunier , MC Chapuy , ME Arlot , Can we stop bone loss and prevent hip fractures in the elderly? Osteoporosis Int. 1994; 4: S71–S76.
51 ME Martinez , MJ Delcampo , MJ Sanchez-Cabezudo , Relations between calcidiol serum levels and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with low bone density. Calcif. Tissue Int. 1994; 55: 253–256.
53 ME Ooms , P Lips , JC Roos , Vitamin D status and sex hormone binding globulin: determinants of bone turnover and bone mineral density in elderly women. J. Bone Min. Res. 1995; 10: 1177–1184.
54 SH Scharla , C Scheidt-Nave , G Leidig , Lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with increased bone resorption markers and lower bone density at the proximal femur in normal females: a population-based study. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes 1996; 104: 289–292.
55 DT Villareal , R Civitelli , A Chines , Subclinical vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal women with low vertebral bone mass. J Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1991; 72: 628–634.
56 KT Khaw , MJ Sheyd , J Compston . Bone density, parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in middle-aged women. BMJ 1992; 305: 273–277.
57 B Dawson-Huges , GE Dallal , EA Krall , Effect of vitamin D supplementation on overall bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women. Ann. Inter. Med. 1991; 115: 505–512.
60 ME Ooms , JC Roos , PD Bezemer , Prevention of bone loss by vitamin D supplementation in elderly women: a randomized double blind trial. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1995; 80: 1052–1058.
61 ES Orwoll , SK Oviatt , MR McClung , The rate of bone mineral loss in normal men and the effects of calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. Ann. Intern. Med. 1990; 112: 29–34.
63 MA Krieg , AF Jacquet , M Bremgartner , Effect of supplementation with vitamin D3 and calcium on quantitative ultrasound of bone in elderly institutionalised women: a longitudinal study. Osteoporosis Int. 1999; 9: 483–488.
64 MC Chapuy , ME Arlot , PD Delmas , Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol treatment for three years on hip fractures in elderly women. BMJ 1994; 308: 1081–1082.
65 P Lips , WC Graafmans , ME Ooms , Vitamin D supplementation and fracture incidence in elderly persons – a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 1996; 124: 400–406.
66 RJ Heikinheimo , JA Inkovaara , EJ Harjv , Annual injections of vitamin D and fractures of aged bone. Calcif. Tissue Int. 1992; 51: 105–110.
67 P Lips . Vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis: the role of vitamin D deficiency and treatment with vitamin D and analogues in the prevention of osteoporosis-related fractures. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 1996; 26: 436–442.
68 CM Weaver , M Peacock , CC Johnston . Adolescent nutrition in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1999; 84: 1839–1843.
69 J-P Bonjour , MA Schurch , R Rizzoli . Nutritional aspects of hip fractures. Bone 1996; 18: s139–S144.
70 G Geinoz , CH Rapin , R Rizzoli , Relationship between bone mineral density and dietary intakes in the elderly. Osteoporosis Int. 1993; 3: 242–248.
71 ES Orwoll . The effects of dietary protein insufficiency and excess on skeletal health. Bone 1992; 13: 343–350.
72 D Conlan , R Korula , D Tallentire . Serum copper levels in elderly patients with femoral neck fractures. Age Ageing 1990; 19: 212–214.
74 SJ Hodges , K Akesson , P Vergnaud , Circulating levels of vitamin K1 and K2 decreased in elderly women with hip fracture. J Bone Min. Res. 1998; 8: 1241–1245.
76 P Szulc , MC Chapuy , PJ Meunier , Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin is a marker of the risk of hip fracture in elderly women. J Clin. Invest. 1993; 91: 1769–1774.
77 P Szulc , M Arlot , MC Chapuy , Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin correlates with hip bone mineral density in elderly women. J Bone Min. Res. 1994; 9: 1591–1595.
79 M Karkainen , C Lamberg-Allardt . An acute intake of phosphate increases parathyroid hormone secretion and inhibits bone formation in young women. J. Bone Min. Res. 1996; 11: 1905–1912.
82 H Kroge , E Alhava , R Honkanen , The effect of fluoridated drinking water on axial bone mineral density – a population based study. Bone Min. 1994; 27: 33–41.
83 S Hillier , C Cooper , S Kellingray , Fluoride in drinking water and risk of hip fracture in the UK: a case-control study. Lancet 2000; 355: 265–269.
84 JA Cauley , PA Murphy , PJ Riley , Effects of fluoridated drinking water on bone mass and fractures: the study of osteoporotic fractures. J Bone Min. Res. 1995; 10: 1076–1086.
86 LK Masey , SJ Whiting . Dietary salt, urinary calcium, and bone loss. J Bone Min. Res. 1996; 11: 731–736.
91 BEC Nordin , RP Heaney . Calcium supplementation of the diet:justified by present evidence. BMJ 1990; 300: 1056–1060.
92NIH Consensus Conference. Optimal Calcium Intake. JAMA 1994; 272: 1942–1948.
97 RP Heaney , MS Dowell , MJ Barger-Lux . Absorption of calcium as the carbonate and citrate salts, with some observations on method. Osteoporosis Int. 1999; 9: 19–23.
98 JM Wishart , M Horowitz , HA Morris , Relationship between fractional calcium absorption and gastric empty–ing. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 1995; 25: 123–127.
99 J Aerssens , K Declerck , B Maeyaert , The effect of modyfing dietary calcium intake pattern on the circadian–rhythm of bone resorption. Calcif. Tissue Int. 1999; 65: 34–40.
100 SJ Whiting , RJ Wood . Adverse effects of high-calcium diets in humans. Nutrition Reviews 1997; 55: 1–9.
101 GC Curhan , WC Willett , FE Speizer , Comparison of dietary calcium with supplemental calcium and other nutrients as factors affecting the risk for kidney stones in women. Ann. Intern. Med. 1997; 126: 497–504.
103 IR Reid , DJA Gallagher , J Bosworth . Prophylaxis against vitamin D deficiency in the elderly by regular sunlight exposure. Age Ageing 1986; 15: 35–40.
104 VGM Chel , ME Ooms , C Popp-Snijders , Ultraviolet irradiation corrects vitamin D deficiency and suppressess secondary hyperparathyroidism in the elderly. J. Bone Min. Res. 1998; 13: 1238–1242.
105 JE Compston . Vitamin D deficiency: time for action. BMJ 1998; 317: 1466–1467.