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Changes in socio-economic status and lipoproteins in Chilean adolescents: a 16-year longitudinal study

  • Zachary J Madewell (a1), Estela Blanco (a2) (a3), Raquel Burrows (a4), Betsy Lozoff (a5) (a6) and Sheila Gahagan (a2) (a5)...

The present longitudinal study assessed whether changes in socio-economic status (SES) from infancy to adolescence were associated with plasma lipoprotein concentrations in adolescence, of which low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and high LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), TAG and total cholesterol (TC) concentrations are associated with higher cardiovascular risk.


SES, assessed using the modified Graffar Index, was calculated at 1, 5, 10 and 16 years. Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation extracted two orthogonal SES factors, termed ‘environmental capital’ and ‘social capital’. Generalized linear models were used to analyse associations between environmental and social capital at 1 and 16 years and outcomes (HDL-C, LDL-C, TAG, TC) at 16 years, as well as changes in environmental and social capital from 1–5, 5–10, 10–16 and 1–16 years, and outcomes at 16 years.


Santiago, Chile.


We evaluated 665 participants from the Santiago Longitudinal Study enrolled at infancy in Fe-deficiency anaemia studies and examined every 5 years to age 16 years.


Social capital in infancy was associated with higher HDL-C in adolescence. Environmental capital in adolescence was associated with higher LDL-C and TC during adolescence. Changing environmental capital from 1–16 years was associated with higher LDL-C. Changing environmental capital from 1–5 and 1–16 years was associated with higher TC.


Improvements in environmental capital throughout childhood were associated with less healthy LDL-C and TC concentrations in adolescence. We found no evidence of associations between changing environmental capital and HDL-C or TAG, or changing social capital and HDL-C, LDL-C, TAG or TC.

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Public Health Nutrition
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