Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 23
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Hill, A. J. Cairnduff, V. and McCance, D. R. 2016. Nutritional and clinical associations of food cravings in pregnancy. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Vol. 29, Issue. 3, p. 281.

    Lopes, T S Luiz, R R Hoffman, D J Ferriolli, E Pfrimer, K Moura, A S Sichieri, R and Pereira, R A 2016. Misreport of energy intake assessed with food records and 24-h recalls compared with total energy expenditure estimated with DLW. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition,

    Nissensohn, Mariela Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena Ortega, Rosa Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier Gil, Ángel González-Gross, Marcela Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio and Serra-Majem, Lluis 2016. Beverage Consumption Habits and Association with Total Water and Energy Intakes in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study. Nutrients, Vol. 8, Issue. 4, p. 232.

    Bonn, Stephanie Erika Bergman, Patrick Trolle Lagerros, Ylva Sjölander, Arvid and Bälter, Katarina 2015. A Validation Study of the Web-Based Physical Activity Questionnaire Active-Q Against the GENEA Accelerometer. JMIR Research Protocols, Vol. 4, Issue. 3, p. e86.

    Ruiz, Emma Ávila, José Valero, Teresa del Pozo, Susana Rodriguez, Paula Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier Gil, Ángel González-Gross, Marcela Ortega, Rosa Serra-Majem, Lluis and Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio 2015. Energy Intake, Profile, and Dietary Sources in the Spanish Population: Findings of the ANIBES Study. Nutrients, Vol. 7, Issue. 6, p. 4739.

    Collins, Clare E. Dewar, Deborah L. Schumacher, Tracy L. Finn, Tara Morgan, Philip J. and Lubans, David R. 2014. 12Month changes in dietary intake of adolescent girls attending schools in low-income communities following the NEAT Girls cluster randomized controlled trial. Appetite, Vol. 73, p. 147.

    Harding, Jessica L Backholer, Kathryn Williams, Emily D Peeters, Anna Cameron, Adrian J Hare, Matthew JL Shaw, Jonathan E and Magliano, Dianna J 2014. Psychosocial stress is positively associated with body mass index gain over 5 years: Evidence from the longitudinal AusDiab study. Obesity, Vol. 22, Issue. 1, p. 277.

    Drewnowski, Adam and Rehm, Colin D 2013. Energy intakes of US children and adults by food purchase location and by specific food source. Nutrition Journal, Vol. 12, Issue. 1,

    Gee, Marianne E. Pickett, William Janssen, Ian Johnson, Jeffrey A. and Campbell, Norman R.C. 2013. Health Behaviors for Hypertension Management in People With and Without Coexisting Diabetes. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension, Vol. 15, Issue. 6, p. 389.

    Alphin, Shan Kjøller, Mette Davidsen, Michael Nissen, Nina Konstantin and Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe Olsen 2012. Self-reported ischemic heart disease: Prevalence, sociodemographics, health behavior, health-care utilization, and quality of life. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 02, Issue. 02, p. 240.

    Hare, Marion E. Sherrill-Mittleman, Deborah Klesges, Robert C. Lanctot, Jennifer Q. and Klesges, Lisa M. 2012. Energy Underreporting in African-American Girls: A Longitudinal Analysis. Childhood Obesity, Vol. 8, Issue. 6, p. 551.

    Knudsen, Vibeke K. Fagt, Sisse Trolle, Ellen Matthiessen, Jeppe Groth, Margit V. Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Sørensen, Mette R. and Pedersen, Agnes N. 2012. Evaluation of dietary intake in Danish adults by means of an index based on food-based dietary guidelines. Food & Nutrition Research, Vol. 56,

    Knudsen, Vibeke K Gille, Maj-Britt Nielsen, Trine H Christensen, Tue Fagt, Sisse and Biltoft-Jensen, Anja 2011. Relative validity of the pre-coded food diary used in the Danish National Survey of Diet and Physical Activity. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 14, Issue. 12, p. 2110.

    Lutomski, Jennifer E van den Broeck, Jan Harrington, Janas Shiely, Frances and Perry, Ivan J 2011. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, mental health and dietary factors associated with direction of misreporting of energy intake. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 14, Issue. 03, p. 532.

    Carlsen, Monica H Lillegaard, Inger TL Karlsen, Anette Blomhoff, Rune Drevon, Christian A and Andersen, Lene F 2010. Evaluation of energy and dietary intake estimates from a food frequency questionnaire using independent energy expenditure measurement and weighed food records. Nutrition Journal, Vol. 9, Issue. 1,

    Johansen, Karianne S Bjørge, Benedikte Telle Hjellset, Victoria Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd Råberg, Marte and Wandel, Margareta 2010. Changes in food habits and motivation for healthy eating among Pakistani women living in Norway: results from the InnvaDiab-DEPLAN study. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 13, Issue. 06, p. 858.

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis and Ramos-Ibáñez, Norma 2010. Sociodemographic factors associated with physical activity in Mexican adults. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 13, Issue. 07, p. 1131.

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Matthiessen, Jeppe Rasmussen, Lone B. Fagt, Sisse Groth, Margit V. and Hels, Ole 2009. Validation of the Danish 7-day pre-coded food diary among adults: energy intake v. energy expenditure and recording length. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 102, Issue. 12, p. 1838.

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Groth, Margit V Matthiessen, Jeppe Wachmann, Henrik Christensen, Tue and Fagt, Sisse 2009. Diet quality: associations with health messages included in the Danish Dietary Guidelines 2005, personal attitudes and social factors. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 12, Issue. 08, p. 1165.

    Klingberg, S Hallenberg, E Lorentzon, M Mellström, D Ohlsson, C and Hulthén, L 2008. Characteristics of under- and over-reporters of energy intake among 18–20-year-old males: the Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) study. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 11, Issue. 11,


Characteristics of misreporters of dietary intake and physical activity

  • Lone Banke Rasmussen (a1), Jeppe Matthiessen (a1), Anja Biltoft-Jensen (a1) and Inge Tetens (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2007

To characterise misreporters of energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE).


Cross-sectional study, using a validated position and motion instrument, ActiReg®, as the reference method to study misreporters of EI and of EE. EI was measured using a dietary record and EE using a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ). Misreporters were defined as subjects outside the 95% confidence limits of agreement between EI or EE reported/EE measured.


Free-living Danish volunteers.


One hundred and thirty-eight volunteers aged between 20 and 59 years.


Body mass index, smoking, ‘try to eat healthily’ and worries about weight were related to degree of under-reported EI. The percentage energy from added sugar was lowest (P < 0.001) and the percentage energy from protein (P < 0.001) highest in under-reporters compared with acceptable reporters. Subjects who reported being very physically active at work or in leisure time reported a higher EE than measured EE compared with less physically active subjects (P < 0.05). Likewise, subjects who regard themselves as fit or very fit reported a higher EE than subjects who regard themselves as moderately fit (P < 0.05). Possible over-reporters reported less time as very light activity (P = 0.007), more time as moderate activity (P = 0.01) and more time as vigorous activity (P = 0.02) than acceptable reporters.


Under-reporting of EI should always be taken into consideration; however, only a few characteristics of under-reporters are consistent among studies. Misreporting of EI was more prevalent than misreporting of EE. The level of physical activity more than the time spent involved in various activities was misreported.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Characteristics of misreporters of dietary intake and physical activity
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Characteristics of misreporters of dietary intake and physical activity
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Characteristics of misreporters of dietary intake and physical activity
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1LAJLM Braam , MC Ocké , B Bueno-de-Mesquita , JC Seidell . Determinants of obesity-related underreporting of energy intake. American Journal of Epidemiology 1998; 147: 1081–6.

2K Samaras , PJ Kelly , LV Campbell . Dietary underreporting is prevalent in middleaged British women and is not related to adiposity (percentage body fat). International Journal of Obesity 1999; 23: 881–8.

4CD Samuel-Hodge , LF Johnston , LM Fernandez , TC Keyserling , CF Henríquez-Roldán . A comparison of self-reported energy intake with total energy expenditure estimated by accelerometer and basal metabolic rate in African-American women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 663–9.

6JA Novotny , WV Rumpler , H Riddick , JR Herbert , D Rhodes , JT Judd , . Personality characteristics as predictors of underreporting of energy intake on 24-hour dietary recall interviews. Journal of American Dietetic Association 2003; 103: 1146–51.

7MA Mendez , S Wynter , R Wilks , T Forrester . Under- and overreporting of energy is related to obesity, lifestyle factors and food group intakes in Jamaican adults. Public Health Nutrition 2004; 7: 919.

11L Lafay , L Mennen , A Basdevant , MA Charles , JM Borys , E Eschwége , . Does energy intake underreporting involve all kinds of food or only specific food items? Results from the Fleurbaix Laventie Ville Sante (FLVS) study. International Journal of Obesity 2000; 24: 1500–6.

14AE Black . The sensitivity and specificity of the Goldberg cut-off for EI:BMR for identifying diet reports of poor validity. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; 54: 395404.

15JF Sallis , BE Saelens . Assessment of physical activity by self-report: status, limitations, and future directions. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sports 2000; 71: 114.

16R Rzewnicki , YV Auweele , I De Bourdeaudhuij . Addressing overreporting on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) telephone survey with a population sample. Public Health Nutrition 2003; 6: 299305.

17JF Sallis , MJ Buono , JJ Roby , FG Micale , JA Nelson . Seven-day recall and other physical activity self-reports in children and adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1993; 25: 99108.

18HA Hayden , JF Sallis , C Armstrong , K Whalen , J Sarkin . Evaluation of the phone version of the seven day physical activity recall. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1998; 30: S14.

22CL Craig , AL Marshall , M Sjöström , AE Bauman , ML Booth , BE Ainsworts , . International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2003; 35: 1381–95.

23BE Ainsworth , WL Haskell , MC Whitt , MC Irwin , AM Swartz , SJ Strath , . Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2000; 32(Suppl. 9): S498S516.

24B-E Hustvedt , A Christophersen , LR Johnsen , H Tomten , G McNeill , P Haggarty , . Description and validation of the ActiReg®: a novel instrument to measure physical activity and energy expenditure. British Journal of Nutrition 2004; 92: 1001–8.

28I Mattisson , E Wirfält , CA Aronsson , P Wallström , E Sonestedt , B Gullberg , . Misreporting of energy: prevalence, characteristics of misreporters and influence on observed risk estimates in the Malmö diet and cancer cohort. British Journal of Nutrition 2005; 94: 832–42.

30SA Bingham , A Cassidy , TJ Cole , A Welch , SA Runswick , AE Black , . Validation of weighed records and other methods of dietary assessment using the 24 h urine nitrogen technique and other biological markers. British Journal of Nutrition 1995; 73: 531–50.

33MS Buchowski , KM Townsend , KY Chen , SA Acra , M Sun . Energy expenditure determined by self-reported physical activity is related to body fatness. Obesity Research 1999; 7: 2333.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *