Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Consumption of processed food dietary patterns in four African populations

  • Michelle D Holmes (a1) (a2), Shona Dalal (a1), Vikash Sewram (a3), Megan B Diamond (a1), Sally N Adebamowo (a4) (a5), Ikeoluwapo O Ajayi (a6), Clement Adebamowo (a7) (a8), Faraja S Chiwanga (a9), Marina Njelekela (a10), Carien Laurence (a11), Jimmy Volmink (a11) (a12), Francis Bajunirwe (a13), Joan Nankya-Mutyoba (a14), David Guwatudde (a14), Todd G Reid (a15), Walter C Willett (a1) (a2) (a5), Hans-Olov Adami (a1) (a16) and Teresa T Fung (a5) (a17)...
Abstract
Objective

To identify predominant dietary patterns in four African populations and examine their association with obesity.

Design

Cross-sectional study.

Setting/Subjects

We used data from the Africa/Harvard School of Public Health Partnership for Cohort Research and Training (PaCT) pilot study established to investigate the feasibility of a multi-country longitudinal study of non-communicable chronic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. We applied principal component analysis to dietary intake data collected from an FFQ developed for PaCT to ascertain dietary patterns in Tanzania, South Africa, and peri-urban and rural Uganda. The sample consisted of 444 women and 294 men.

Results

We identified two dietary patterns: the Mixed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of unprocessed foods such as vegetables and fresh fish, but also cold cuts and refined grains; and the Processed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of salad dressing, cold cuts and sweets. Women in the highest tertile of the Processed Diet pattern score were 3·00 times more likely to be overweight (95 % CI 1·66, 5·45; prevalence=74 %) and 4·24 times more likely to be obese (95 % CI 2·23, 8·05; prevalence=44 %) than women in this pattern’s lowest tertile (both P<0·0001; prevalence=47 and 14 %, respectively). We found similarly strong associations in men. There was no association between the Mixed Diet pattern and overweight or obesity.

Conclusions

We identified two major dietary patterns in several African populations, a Mixed Diet pattern and a Processed Diet pattern. The Processed Diet pattern was associated with obesity.

Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Email michelle.holmes@channing.harvard.edu
References
Hide All
1. Dalal, S, Beunza, JJ, Volmink, J et al. (2011) Non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: what we know now. Int J Epidemiol 40, 885901.
2. Steyn, NP & Mchiza, ZJ (2014) Obesity and the nutrition transition in sub-Saharan Africa. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1311, 88101.
3. Gleason, PM, Boushey, CJ, Harris, JE et al. (2015) Publishing nutrition research: a review of multivariate techniques. Part 3: data reduction methods. J Acad Nutr Diet 115, 10721082.
4. DiBello, JR, Kraft, P, McGarvey, ST et al. (2008) Comparison of 3 methods for identifying dietary patterns associated with risk of disease. Am J Epidemiol 168, 14331443.
5. Sewram, V, Sitas, F, O’Connell, D et al. (2014) Diet and esophageal cancer risk in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Nutr Cancer 66, 791799.
6. Ax, E, Warensjo Lemming, E, Becker, W et al. (2016) Dietary patterns in Swedish adults; results from a national dietary survey. Br J Nutr 115, 95104.
7. Odegaard, AO, Koh, WP, Yuan, JM et al. (2014) Dietary patterns and mortality in a Chinese population. Am J Clin Nutr 100, 877883.
8. Saadatnia, M, Shakeri, F, Keshteli, AH et al. (2015) Dietary patterns in relation to stroke among Iranians: a case–control study. J Am Coll Nutr 34, 3241.
9. Rodriguez-Monforte, M, Flores-Mateo, G & Sanchez, E (2015) Dietary patterns and CVD: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Br J Nutr 114, 13411359.
10. Brennan, SF, Cantwell, MM, Cardwell, CR et al. (2010) Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 12941302.
11. Arabshahi, S, Ibiebele, TI, Hughes, MC et al. (2017) Dietary patterns and weight change: 15-year longitudinal study in Australian adults. Eur J Nutr 56, 14551465.
12. Boggs, DA, Palmer, JR, Spiegelman, D et al. (2011) Dietary patterns and 14-y weight gain in African American women. Am J Clin Nutr 94, 8694.
13. Shi, Z, Yuan, B, Hu, G et al. (2011) Dietary pattern and weight change in a 5-year follow-up among Chinese adults: results from the Jiangsu Nutrition Study. Br J Nutr 105, 10471054.
14. Becquey, E, Savy, M, Danel, P et al. (2010) Dietary patterns of adults living in Ouagadougou and their association with overweight. Nutr J 9, 13.
15. Frank, LK, Kroger, J, Schulze, MB et al. (2014) Dietary patterns in urban Ghana and risk of type 2 diabetes. Br J Nutr 112, 8998.
16. Keding, GB, Msuya, JM, Maass, BL et al. (2011) Dietary patterns and nutritional health of women: the nutrition transition in rural Tanzania. Food Nutr Bull 32, 218226.
17. Maruapula, S & Chapman-Novakofski, K (2007) Health and dietary patterns of the elderly in Botswana. J Nutr Educ Behav 39, 311319.
18. Hooper, R, Calvert, J, Thompson, RL et al. (2008) Urban/rural differences in diet and atopy in South Africa. Allergy 63, 425431.
19. Nkondjock, A & Bizome, E (2010) Dietary patterns associated with hypertension prevalence in the Cameroon defence forces. Eur J Clin Nutr 64, 10141021.
20. Jordan, I, Hebestreit, A, Swai, B et al. (2013) Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk among women in northern Tanzania: a case–control study. Eur J Nutr 52, 905915.
21. Pisa, PT, Pedro, TM, Kahn, K et al. (2015) Nutrient patterns and their association with socio-demographic, lifestyle factors and obesity risk in rural South African adolescents. Nutrients 7, 34643482.
22. Dalal, S, Holmes, MD, Laurence, C et al. (2015) Feasibility of a large cohort study in sub-Saharan Africa assessed through a four-country study. Glob Health Action 8, 27422.
23. Odegaard, AO, Pereira, MA, Koh, WP et al. (2008) Coffee, tea, and incident type 2 diabetes: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 979985.
24. Willett, W (2012) Nutritional Epidemiology, 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.
25. Bautista, LE, Herran, OF & Pryer, JA (2005) Development and simulated validation of a food-frequency questionnaire for the Colombian population. Public Health Nutr 8, 181188.
26. Hernandez-Avila, M, Romieu, I, Parra, S et al. (1998) Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intake of women living in Mexico City. Salud Publica Mex 40, 133140.
27. Gao, X, Wang, Y, Randell, E et al. (2016) Higher dietary choline and betaine intakes are associated with better body composition in the adult population of Newfoundland, Canada. PLoS One 11, e0155403.
28. Esmaillzadeh, A, Kimiagar, M, Mehrabi, Y et al. (2007) Dietary patterns and markers of systemic inflammation among Iranian women. J Nutr 137, 992998.
29. Esmaillzadeh, A & Azadbakht, L (2008) Food intake patterns may explain the high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among Iranian women. J Nutr 138, 14691475.
30. Monteiro, CA, Levy, RB, Claro, RM et al. (2011) Increasing consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health: evidence from Brazil. Public Health Nutr 14, 513.
31. Stuckler, D, McKee, M, Ebrahim, S et al. (2012) Manufacturing epidemics: the role of global producers in increased consumption of unhealthy commodities including processed foods, alcohol, and tobacco. PLoS Med 9, e1001235.
32. Holmes, MD, Dalal, S, Volmink, J et al. (2010) Non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for cohort studies. PLoS Med 7, e1000244.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed