Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Defining ‘low in fat’ and ‘high in fat’ when applied to a food

  • Carukshi Arambepola (a1), Peter Scarborough (a1), Anna Boxer (a1) and Mike Rayner (a1)
Abstract
Objectives

To describe four different methods of identifying indicator foods that are high, medium or low in fat with reference to dietary patterns and to use these indicator foods to test three sets of definitions of ‘high’, ‘medium’ and ‘low’ in fat from ‘banding schemes’ developed by the Coronary Prevention Group (CPG), the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and Sainsbury’s.

Methods

Indicator foods were developed using food intake data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey and two parameters: (i) probability of the food being consumed by an individual with a high-fat diet (Method 1); and (ii) the contribution of the food to the fat intake of the average diet of consumers (Methods 3 and 4). Method 2 used both parameters. The three banding schemes were tested by assessing their levels of agreement with methods in categorising indicators.

Results

Sensitivity in identifying high, medium and low fat indicators was highest with the CPG banding scheme (high and medium fat indicators) and Sainsbury’s scheme (low fat indicators) (Methods 2, 3 and 4). The levels of agreement (kappa coefficient) were 0·68 for the CPG scheme; 0·51 for the Sainsbury’s scheme; and 0·41 for the FSA scheme (Method 3).

Conclusions

It is possible to use indicator foods related to dietary patterns of a specific population to generate more rational definitions of ‘high’, ‘medium’ and ‘low’ in fat. This could be the starting point for the development of indicator foods for testing more complex nutrient profile models (i.e. those that consider more than one nutrient).

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Defining ‘low in fat’ and ‘high in fat’ when applied to a food
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Defining ‘low in fat’ and ‘high in fat’ when applied to a food
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Defining ‘low in fat’ and ‘high in fat’ when applied to a food
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
References
Hide All
1. Food Standards Agency (2006) Signpost labelling. Board paper FSA 06/06/03 (Annex 6). http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/fsa060303.pdf (accessed February 2007).
2. European Parliament of Council of the European Union (2006) Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. Official Journal of the European Union L12, 18.01.2007, 3–18. http://eurlex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2007/l_012/l_01220070118en00030018.pdf (accessed February 2007).
3. European Commission (not dated) Nutrition Labelling. http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/food/labellingnutrition/nutritionlabel/index_en.htm (accessed February 2007).
4. Rayner M, Scarborough P & Stockley L (2004) Nutrient profiles: options for definitions for use in relation to food promotion and children’s diets (Appendix 2). http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/nutrientprofilingfullreport.pdf (accessed February 2007).
5. Food Standards Agency (not dated) Traffic light labelling. http://www.eatwell.gov.uk/foodlabels/trafficlights/ (accessed February 2006).
6. Codex Alimentarius (2004) Guidelines For the Use of Nutrition and Health Claims CAC/GL 23-1997, Rev. 1-20041. Rome: Codex Alimentarius; available at www.codexalimentarius.net/download/standards/351/CXG_023e.pdf
7. Rayner, M, Scarborough, P & Williams, C (2004) The origin of Guideline Daily Amounts and the Food Standards Agency’s guidance on what counts as a lot and a little. Public Health Nutr 7, 549556.
8. Scarborough, P, Rayner, M & Stockley, L (2007) Developing nutrient profile models: a systematic approach. Public Health Nutr 10, 330336.
9. International Life Sciences Institute Europe (2006) Nutritional Characterisation of Foods. Science-based Approach to Nutrient Profiling. Brussels: ILSI Europe.
10. Scarborough, P, Boxer, A, Rayner, M & Stockley, L (2007) Testing nutrient profile models using data from a survey of nutrition professionals. Public Health Nutr 10, 337345.
11. Office for National Statistics (2002) The National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years. London: The Stationery Office.
12. Altman, D (1991) Practical Statistics for Medical Research. London: Chapman & Hall.
13. Gibney, M & Sandstrom, B (2000) Eurodiet Working Party 2: A framework for food-based dietary guidelines in the European Union. Public Health Nutr 4, 293305.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed