Skip to main content
×
Home

Diet quality, nutrition and physical activity among adolescents: the Web-SPAN (Web-Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition) project

  • Kate E Storey (a1), Laura E Forbes (a1), Shawn N Fraser (a2), John C Spence (a3), Ronald C Plotnikoff (a3) (a4), Kim D Raine (a4), Rhona M Hanning (a5) and Linda J McCargar (a1)...
Abstract
AbstractObjective

To assess the overall diet quality of a sample of adolescents living in Alberta, Canada, and evaluate whether diet quality, nutrient intakes, meal behaviours (i.e. meal skipping and consuming meals away from home) and physical activity are related.

Design

A cross-sectional study design. Students completed the self-administered Web-Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition (Web-SPAN). Students were classified as having poor, average or superior diet quality based on Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating (CFGHE).

Setting

One hundred and thirty-six schools (37 %) within forty-four public and private school boards (75 %) in Alberta, Canada.

Subjects

Grade 7 to 10 Alberta students (n 4936) participated in the school-based research.

Results

On average, students met macronutrient requirements; however, micronutrient and fibre intakes were suboptimal. Median CFGHE food group intakes were below recommendations. Those with poor diet quality (42 %) had lower intakes of protein, fibre and low-calorie beverages; higher intakes of carbohydrates, fat and Other Foods (e.g. foods containing mostly sugar, high-salt/fat foods, high-calorie beverages, low-calorie beverages and high-sugar/fat foods); a lower frequency of consuming breakfast and a higher frequency of consuming meals away from home; and a lower level of physical activity when compared with students with either average or superior diet quality.

Conclusions

Alberta adolescents were not meeting minimum CFGHE recommendations, and thus had suboptimal intakes and poor diet quality. Suboptimal nutritional intakes, meal behaviours and physical inactivity were all related to poor diet quality and reflect the need to target these health behaviours in order to improve diet quality and overall health and wellness.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Diet quality, nutrition and physical activity among adolescents: the Web-SPAN (Web-Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition) project
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Diet quality, nutrition and physical activity among adolescents: the Web-SPAN (Web-Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition) project
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Diet quality, nutrition and physical activity among adolescents: the Web-SPAN (Web-Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition) project
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email Kate.Storey@ualberta.ca
References
Hide All
1.Shields M (2005) Nutrition: Findings from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Measured Obesity: Overweight Canadian children and adolescents. http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/82-620-MIE/2005001/pdf/cobesity.pdf (accessed August 2008).
2.Garriguet D (2004) Nutrition: Findings from the Canadian Community Health Survey. Overview of Canadians’ eating habits. http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/82-620-MIE/82-620-MIE2006002.pdf (accessed August 2008).
3.Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute (2006) 2005 Physical Activity and Sport Monitor. http://www.cflri.ca/eng/statistics/surveys/pam2005.php (accessed August 2008).
4.Health Canada (1992) Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/alt_formats/hpfb-dgpsa/pdf/food-guide-aliment/fg_rainbow-arc_en_ciel_ga_e.pdf (accessed August 2008).
5.Health Canada and the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (2002) Canada’s Physical Activity Guide for Youth. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/pau-uap/paguide/child_youth/pdf/guide_y_e.pdf (accessed August 2008).
6.Sanchez A, Norman GJ, Sallis JF, Calfas KJ, Cella J & Patrick K (2007) Patterns and correlates of physical activity and nutrition behaviors in adolescents. Am J Prev Med 32, 124130.
7.Raine KD (2004) Overweight and obesity in Canada: A population health perspective. http://www.cihi.ca/cihiweb/dispPage.jsp?cw_page=GR_1130_E (accessed August 2008).
8.Woodruff SJ, Hanning RM, Lambraki I, Storey KE & McCargar L (2008) Healthy Eating Index-C is compromised among adolescents with body weight concerns, weight loss dieting, and meal skipping. Body Image 5, 404408.
9.Hurley KM, Oberlander SE, Merry BC, Wrobleski MM, Klassen AC & Black MM (2009) The healthy eating index and youth healthy eating index are unique, nonredundant measures of diet quality among low-income, African American adolescents. J Nutr 139, 359364.
10.Dietz WH (1998) Health consequences of obesity in youth: childhood predictors of adult disease. Pediatrics 101, 518525.
11.Plotnikoff RC, Karunamuni N, Spence JC, Storey K, Forbes L, Raine K, Wild TC & McCargar L (2009) Chronic disease-related lifestyle risk factors in a sample of Canadian adolescents. J Adolesc Health (In the Press).
12.Hanning RM, Woodruff SJ, Lambraki I, Jessup L, Driezen P & Murphy CC (2007) Nutrient intakes and food consumption patterns among Ontario students in grades six, seven, and eight. Can J Public Health 98, 1216.
13.Minaker LM, McCargar L, Lambraki I, Jessup L, Driezen P, Calengor K & Hanning RM (2006) School region socio-economic status and geographic locale is associated with food behaviour of Ontario and Alberta adolescents. Can J Public Health 97, 357361.
14.Rockett HRH & Colditz GA (1997) Assessing diets of children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 4 Suppl., 1116S1122S.
15.Calengor KE (2007) Nutrition, physical activity and related health behaviours in youth as assessed by a web-survey. PhD Thesis, University of Alberta.
16.Lowik MR, Hulshof KF & Brussaard JH (1999) Food-based dietary guidelines: some assumptions tested for The Netherlands. Br J Nutr 81, Suppl, 2, S143S149.
17.Waijers PM, Feskens EJ & Ocke MC (2007) A critical review of predefined diet quality scores. Br J Nutr 97, 219231.
18.Health Canada (2001) Canadian Nutrient File. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/food-aliment/ns-sc/nr-rn/surveillance/cnf-fcen/e_index.html (accessed August 2008).
19.Health Canada (2007) Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/alt_formats/hpfb-dgpsa/pdf/food-guide-aliment/view_eatwell_vue_bienmang_e.pdf (accessed August 2008).
20.Alberta Learning (2002) Health and life skills, kindergarten to grade 9. http://www.education.gov.ab.ca/k_12/curriculum/bySubject/healthpls/health.pdf (accessed December 2006).
21.Alberta Learning (2005) Career and technology studies. http://www.education.gov.ab.ca/k%5F12/curriculum/bySubject/cts/foods/fodpos.pdf (accessed December 2006).
22.Institute of Medicine (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
23.Institute of Medicine (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
24.Institute of Medicine (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
25.Institute of Medicine (1998) Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
26.Institute of Medicine (1997) Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
27.Institute of Medicine (2000) Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
28.Neumark-Sztainer D, Wall MM, Story M & Perry CL (2003) Correlates of unhealthy weight-control behaviors among adolescents: implications for prevention programs. Health Psychol 22, 8898.
29.Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Hannan PJ, Perry CL & Irving LM (2002) Weight-related concerns and behaviors among overweight and nonoverweight adolescents: implications for preventing weight-related disorders. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 156, 171178.
30.Kowalski KC, Crocker PRE & Donen RM (2004) The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and Adolescents (PAQ-A) Manual. http://hkin.educ.ubc.ca/behavioural/PAQ%20manual.pdf (accessed August 2008).
31.Crocker PRE, Bailey DA, Faulkner RA, Kowalski KC & McGrath R (1997) Measuring general levels of physical activity: preliminary evidence for the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29, 13441349.
32.Kowalski KC, Crocker PRE & Faulkner RA (1997) Validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 9, 174186.
33.Barr SI (2006) Applications of Dietary Reference Intakes in dietary assessment and planning. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 31, 6673.
34.Nusser SM, Carriquiry AL, Dodd KW & Fuller WA (1996) A semiparametric transformation approach to estimating usual daily intake distributions. J Am Stat Assoc 91, 14401449.
35.Tabachnick BG & Fidell LS (2007) Using Multivariate Statistics, 5th ed. New York: Pearson Education, Inc.
36.D’Alonzo KT (2004) The Johnson–Neyman procedure as an alternative to ANCOVA. West J Nurs Res 26, 804812.
37.Gray-Donald K, Jacobs-Starkey L & Johnson-Down L (2000) Food habits of Canadians: reduction in fat intake over a generation. Can J Public Health 91, 381385.
38.Veugelers PJ, Fitzgerald AL & Johnston E (2005) Dietary intake and risk factors for poor diet quality among children in Nova Scotia. Can J Public Health 96, 212216.
39.Jacobs Starkey L, Johnson-Down L & Gray-Donald K (2001) Food habits of Canadians: comparison of intakes in adults and adolescents to Canada’s food guide to healthy eating. Can J Diet Pract Res 62, 6169.
40.Rampersaud GC, Pereira MA, Girard BL, Adams J & Metzl JD (2005) Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 743760.
41.Cohen B, Evers S, Manske S, Bercovitz K & Edward HG (2003) Smoking, physical activity and breakfast consumption among secondary school students in a southwestern Ontario community. Can J Public Health 94, 4144.
42.French SA, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D, Fulkerson JA & Hannan P (2001) Fast food restaurant use among adolescents: associations with nutrient intake, food choices and behavioral and psychosocial variables. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25, 18231833.
43.Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute (2004) 2004 Physical Activity and Sport Monitor. http://www.cflri.ca/eng/statistics/surveys/pam2004.php (accessed August 2008).
44.Pronk NP, Anderson LH, Crain AL, Martinson BC, O’Connor PJ, Sherwood NE & Whitebird RR (2004) Meeting recommendations for multiple healthy lifestyle factors. Prevalence, clustering, and predictors among adolescent, adult, and senior health plan members. Am J Prev Med 27, 2533.
45.Lytle LA, Kelder SH, Perry CL & Klepp K-I (1995) Covariance of adolescent health behaviours: the Class of 1989 study. Health Educ Res 10, 133146.
46.Janssen I, Boyce WF, Simpson K & Pickett W (2006) Influence of individual- and area-level measures of socioeconomic status on obesity, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity in Canadian adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 139145.
47.Gordon-Larsen P, Nelson MC, Page P & Popkin BM (2006) Inequality in the built environment underlies key health disparities in physical activity and obesity. Pediatrics 117, 417424.
48.Bandini LG, Must A, Cyr H, Anderson SE, Spadano JL & Dietz WH (2003) Longitudinal changes in the accuracy of reported energy intake in girls 10–15 y of age. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 480484.
49.Livingstone MB, Prentice AM, Coward WA, Strain JJ, Black AE, Davies PSW, Stewart CM, McKenna PG & Whitehead RG (1992) Validation of estimates of energy intake by weighed dietary record and diet history in children and adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr 56, 2935.
50.Supple AJ, Aquilino WS & Wright DL (1999) Collecting sensitive self-report data with laptop computers: impact on the response tendencies of adolescents in a home interview. J Res Adolesc 9, 467488.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 24
Total number of PDF views: 151 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 463 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.