Skip to main content
×
Home

Dietary diversity score is related to obesity and abdominal adiposity among Iranian female youth

  • Leila Azadbakht (a1) and Ahmad Esmaillzadeh (a2)
Abstract
AbstractObjective

To assess the relationship between diet and disease, consideration of whole-diet indices may be more informative than single-nutrient intake. The present study was conducted to report the relationship among dietary diversity score (DDS), obesity and abdominal adiposity among female university students.

Design

Cross-sectional study.

Setting

Isfahan, Iran.

Subjects

A representative sample of 289 healthy female students aged 18–28 years was selected randomly from Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. DDS was calculated according to the scoring of the five food groups based on the US Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid. This is a score of diet variety, and shows the diversity of the consumed diet. Participants were categorised on the basis of quartile cut-off points of DDS. Potential confounders such as age, total energy intake and physical activity were considered in all the analyses.

Results

The means (sd) of BMI and waist circumference were 25·9 (sd 5·1) kg/m2 and 85·5 (sd 14) cm, respectively. The probability of obesity decreased with quartiles of DDS (OR among quartiles: 1·00, 0·41, 0·31 and 0·21, P = 0·03; this was the same for abdominal adiposity: 1·00, 0·55, 0·36 and 0·21, P = 0·02). Those in the lowest quartile of the DDS had the highest risk for being overweight.

Conclusions

There were inverse associations among DDS, obesity and abdominal adiposity among the female students of Isfahan University. Further prospective investigations are needed to confirm this finding.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Dietary diversity score is related to obesity and abdominal adiposity among Iranian female youth
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Dietary diversity score is related to obesity and abdominal adiposity among Iranian female youth
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Dietary diversity score is related to obesity and abdominal adiposity among Iranian female youth
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email azadbakht@hlth.mui.ac.ir
References
Hide All
1.World Health Organization (2008) Fact sheet: obesity and overweight. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/print.html (accessed June 2008).
2.Low S, Chin MC & Deurenberg-Yap M (2009) Review on epidemic of obesity. Ann Acad Med Singapore 38, 5759.
3.Azizi F, Azadbakht L & Mirmiran P (2005) Trends in overweight, obesity and central fat accumulation among Tehranian adults between 1998–1999 and 2001–2002: Tehran lipid and glucose study. Ann Nutr Metab 49, 38.
4.Wei M, Gaskill SP, Haffner SM et al. (1997) Waist circumference as the best predictor of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus compared to BMI, WHR other anthropometric measurements in Mexican Americans: a 7-year prospective study. Obes Res 5, 1623.
5.Esmaillzadeh A, Mirmiran P, Azadbakht L et al. (2006) Independent and inverse association of hip circumference with metabolic risk factors in Tehranian adult men. Prev Med 42, 354357.
6.Azadbakht L, Mirmiran P & Azizi F (2004) Obesity prevalence and its determinants. Iran J Endocrinol Metab 20, 426501.
7.Azadbakht L, Mirmiran P, Shiva N et al. (2005) General obesity and central adiposity in a representative sample of Tehranian adults: prevalence and determinants. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75, 297304.
8.Azadbakht L & Esmaillzadeh A (2007) Dietary and non-dietary determinants of central adiposity among Tehrani women. Public Health Nutr 11, 528534.
9.Azadbakht L & Esmaillzadeh A (2008) Fast foods and risk of chronic diseases. J Res Med Sci 13, 12.
10.Jaffiol C (2008) Milk and dairy products in the prevention and therapy of obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Bull Acad Natl Med 192, 749758.
11.Wang Y & Beydoun MA (2009) Meat consumption is associated with obesity and central obesity among US adults. Int J Obes (Lond) 33, 621628.
12.Barba G & Russo P (2006) Dairy foods, dietary calcium and obesity: a short review of the evidence. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 16, 445451.
13.Azadbakht L, Mirmiranr R & Azizi F (2006) Predictors of cardiovascular risk factors in Tehranian adults: diet and lifestyle. East Mediterr Health J 12, 8897.
14.Azizi F, Mirmiran P & Azadbakht L (2004) Predictors of cardiovascular risk factors in Tehranian adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 74, 307312.
15.Hu FB (2002) Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Curr Opin Lipidol 13, 39.
16.Newby PK & Tucker KL (2004) Empirically derived eating patterns using factor or cluster analysis: a review. Nutr Rev 62, 177203.
17.Kant AK (2004) Dietary patterns and health outcomes. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 615635.
18.Hatloy A, Torheim LE & Oshaug A (1998) Food variety: a good indicator of nutritional adequacy of the diet? A case study from an urban area in Mali, West Africa. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 891898.
19.Azadbakht L, Mirmiran P & Azizi F (2005) Variety scores of food groups contribute to the specific nutrient adequacy in Tehranian men. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 12331240.
20.Mirmiran P, Azadbakht L, Esmaillzadeh A et al. (2004) Dietary diversity score in adolescents – a good indicator of the nutritional adequacy of diets: Tehran lipid and glucose study. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 13, 5660.
21.Mirmiran P, Azadbakht L & Azizi F (2006) Dietary diversity within food groups: an indicator of specific nutrient adequacy in Tehranian women. J Am Coll Nutr 25, 354361.
22.Steyn N, Nel J, Nantel G et al. (2006) Food variety and dietary diversity scores; are they good indicators of dietary adequacy? Public Health Nutr 9, 644650.
23.Azadbakht L, Mirmiran P & Azizi F (2005) Dietary diversity score is favorably associated with the metabolic syndrome in Tehranian adults. Int J Obes (Lond) 29, 13611367.
24.McCollough ML, Feskanich D, Stampfer MJ et al. (2002) Diet quality and major chronic disease risk in men and women: moving toward improved dietary guidance. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 930939.
25.Azadbakht L, Mirmiran P, Esmaillzadeh A et al. (2006) Dietary diversity score and cardiovascular risk factors in Tehranian adults. Public Health Nutr 9, 728736.
26.Wahlqvist ML, Lo CS & Myers KA (1989) Food variety is associated with less macrovascular disease in those with type II diabetes and their healthy controls. J Am Coll Nutr 8, 515523.
27.Miller WL, Crabtree BF & Evans DK (1992) Exploratory study of the relationship between hypertension and diet diversity among Saba Islanders. Public Health Rep 107, 426432.
28.Raynor HA & Epstein LH (2001) Dietary variety, energy regulation, and obesity. Psychol Bull 127, 325341.
29.Kennedy E (2004) Dietary diversity, diet quality, and body weight regulation. Nutr Rev 62, S78S81.
30.Raynor HA, Jeffery RW, Tate DF et al. (2004) Relationship between changes in food group variety, dietary intake, and weight during obesity treatment. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 813820.
31.Ghaffarpour M, Houshiar-Rad A & Kianfar H (1999) The Manual for Household Measures, Cooking Yields Factors and Edible Portion of Foods. Tehran: Keshaverzi Press (In Farsi).
32.Azadbakht L, Mirmiran P, Esmaillzadeh A et al. (2005) Dairy consumption is inversely associated with the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Tehranian adults. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 523530.
33.Wang J, Thornton JC, Bari S et al. (2003) Comparisons of waist circumferences measured at 4 sites. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 379384.
34.Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Whitt MC et al. (2000) Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32, S498S504.
35.Stunkard AJ & Wadden TA (editors) (1993) Obesity: Theory and Therapy, 2nd ed, p. 45. New York: Raven Press.
36.National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) (2002) Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on detection evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults. Circulation 106, 31433421.
37.Kant AK, Schatzkin A & Ziegler RG (1995) Dietary diversity and subsequent cause of specific mortality in the NHANES I epidemiologic follow up study. J Am Coll Nutr 14, 233238.
38.Kant AK, Schatzkin A, Ziegler RG et al. (1991) Dietary diversity in the US population, NHANES II, 1976–1980. J Am Diet Assoc 15, 15261531.
39. US Department of Agriculture (1996) USDA’S Food Guide Pyramid Booklet. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture.
40.Mirmiran P, Azadbakht L & Azizi F (2005) Dietary quality-adherence to the dietary guidelines in Tehranian adolescents: Tehran lipid and glucose study. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 75, 195200.
41.Torheim LE, Ouattara F, Diarra MM et al. (2004) Nutrient adequacy and dietary diversity in rural Mali: association and determinants. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 594604.
42.Foote JA, Murphy SP, Wilkens LR et al. (2004) Dietary variety increases the probability of nutrient adequacy among adults. J Nutr 134, 17791785.
43.Esmaillzadeh A & Azadbakht L (2008) Consumption of hydrogenated vs. non-hydrogenated vegetable oils and risk of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome among Iranian adult women. Diabetes Care 31, 223226.
44.Esmaillzadeh A, Kimiagar M, Mehrabi Y et al. (2006) Fruit and vegetable intakes, C-reactive protein, and the metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 14891497.
45.Esmaillzadeh A, Mirmiran P & Azizi F (2005) Whole-grain consumption and the metabolic syndrome: a favorable association in Tehranian adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 353362.
46.Dorfman SE, Laurent D, Gounarides JS et al. (2009) Metabolic implications of dietary trans-fatty acids. Obesity (Silver Spring) 17, 12001207.
47.Asgary S, Nazari B, Sarrafzadegan N et al. (2009) Fatty acid composition of commercially available Iranian vegetable oils. J Res Med Sci 14, 211215.
48.Asgary S, Nazari B, Sarrafzadegan N et al. (2009) Fatty acid contents of Iranian Fast Foods. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 18, 187192.
49.Kant AK & Graubard BI (2005) A comparison of three dietary pattern indexes for predicting biomarkers of diet and disease. J Am Coll Nutr 24, 294303.
50.Fernandez E, Negri E, La Vecchia C et al. (2000) Diet diversity and colorectal cancer. Prev Med 31, 1114.
51.La Vecchia C, Munoz SE, Braga C et al. (1996) Diet diversity and the risk of colorectal cancer in northern Italy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 5, 433436.
52.Sarrafzadegan N, Azadbakht L, Mohammadifard N et al. (2009) Do lifestyle interventions affect dietary diversity score (DDS) in general population? Public Health Nutr 12, 19241930.
53.Esmaillzadeh A & Azadbakht L (2008) Major dietary patterns in relation to general obesity and central adiposity among Iranian women. J Nutr 138, 358363.
54.Azadbakht L, Atabak S & Esmaillzadeh A (2008) Soy protein intake, cardio-renal indices and C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy: a longitudinal randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Care 3, 648654.
55.Azadbakht L & Esmaillzadeh A (2009) Red meat intake is associated with the metabolic syndrome and plasma C-reactive protein levels. J Nutr 139, 335339.
56.Esmaillzadeh A & Azadbakht L (2008) Home use of vegetable oils, markers of systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction among women. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 913921.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 23
Total number of PDF views: 396 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 456 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 13th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.