1. DR Coustan , LP Lowe , BE Metzger et al. (2010) The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study: paving the way for new diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 202, 654.e1–e6.
2.American Diabetes Association (2012) Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diab Care 35, Suppl. 1, S64–S71.
3. D Dabelea , JK Snell-Bergeon , CL Hartsfield et al. (2005) Increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) over time and by birth cohort: Kaiser Permanente of Colorado GDM Screening Program. Diabetes Care 28, 579–584.
4. D Getahun , C Nath , CV Ananth et al. (2008) Gestational diabetes in the United States: temporal trends 1989 through 2004. Am J Obstet Gynecol 198, 525.e1–e5.
5. KJ Hunt & KL Schuller (2007) The increasing prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 34, 173–199.
6. SS Albrecht , EV Kuklina , P Bansil et al. (2010) Diabetes trends among delivery hospitalizations in the US, 1994–2004. Diabetes Care 33, 768–773.
7. TA Hillier , KL Pedula , MM Schmidt et al. (2007) Childhood obesity and metabolic imprinting: the ongoing effects of maternal hyperglycemia. Diabetes Care 30, 2287–2292.
8. BE Metzger (2007) Long-term outcomes in mothers diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus and their offspring. Clin Obstet Gynecol 50, 972–979.
9. TD Clausen , ER Mathiesen , T Hansen et al. (2008) High prevalence of type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes in adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes: the role of intrauterine hyperglycemia. Diabetes Care 31, 340–346.
10. H Boerschmann , M Pfluger , L Henneberger et al. (2010) Prevalence and predictors of overweight and insulin resistance in offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 33, 1845–1849.
11. RK Agrawal , K Lui & JM Gupta (2000) Neonatal hypoglycaemia in infants of diabetic mothers. J Pediatr Child Health 36, 354–356.
12. A Maayan-Metzger , D Lubin & J Kuint (2009) Hypoglycemia rates in the first days of life among term infants born to diabetic mothers. Neonatology 96, 80–85.
13. HE Fadl , IK Ostlund , AF Magnuson et al. (2010) Maternal and neonatal outcomes and time trends of gestational diabetes mellitus in Sweden from 1991 to 2003. Diabet Med 27, 436–441.
14. AM Weindling (2009) Offspring of diabetic pregnancy: short-term outcomes. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 14, 111–118.
15. MH Labbok , D Clark & AS Goldman (2004) Breastfeeding: maintaining an irreplaceable immunological resource. Nat Rev Immunol 4, 565–572.
16. E Patelarou , C Girvalaki , H Brokalaki et al. (2012) Current evidence on the associations of breastfeeding, infant formula, and cow’s milk introduction with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Nutr Rev 70, 509–519.
18. L Cordero , S Thung , MB Landon et al. (2014) Breast-feeding initiation in women with pregestational diabetes mellitus. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 53, 18–25.
19. IR Chertok , I Raz , I Shoham et al. (2009) Effects of early breastfeeding on neonatal glucose levels of term infants born to women with gestational diabetes. J Hum Nutr Diet 22, 166–169.
20. EB Schwarz , JS Brown , JM Creasman et al. (2010) Lactation and maternal risk of type 2 diabetes: a population-based study. Am J Med 123, 863.e1–e6.
21. AM Stuebe , JW Rich-Edwards , WC Willett et al. (2005) Duration of lactation and incidence of type 2 diabetes. JAMA 294, 2601–2610.
22. MW O’Reilly , G Avalos , MC Dennedy et al. (2011) Atlantic DIP: high prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance post partum is reduced by breast-feeding in women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus. Eur J Endocrinol 165, 953–959.
23. V Gingras , AM Paradis , A Tchernof et al. (2012) Relationship between the adoption of preventive practices and the metabolic profile of women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 37, 1232–1238.
24. EP Gunderson , MM Hedderson , V Chiang et al. (2012) Lactation intensity and postpartum maternal glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in women with recent GDM: the SWIFT cohort. Diabetes Care 35, 50–56.
25. AG Ziegler , M Wallner , I Kaiser et al. (2012) Long-term protective effect of lactation on the development of type 2 diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 61, 3167–3171.
26. S Chouinard-Castonguay , SJ Weisnagel , A Tchernof et al. (2013) Relationship between lactation duration and insulin and glucose response among women with prior gestational diabetes. Eur J Endocrinol 168, 515–523.
27. SA Finkelstein , E Keely , DS Feig et al. (2013) Breastfeeding in women with diabetes: lower rates despite greater rewards. A population-based study. Diabet Med 30, 1094–1101.
28. S Hummel , C Winkler , S Schoen et al. (2007) Breastfeeding habits in families with type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med 24, 671–676.
29. S Schoen , W Sichert-Hellert , S Hummel et al. (2008) Breastfeeding duration in families with type 1 diabetes compared to non-affected families: results from BABYDIAB and DONALD studies in Germany. Breastfeed Med 3, 171–175.
30. H Soltani & M Arden (2009) Factors associated with breastfeeding up to 6 months postpartum in mothers with diabetes. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 38, 586–594.
31. C Sparud-Lundin , M Wennergren , A Elfvin et al. (2011) Breastfeeding in women with type 1 diabetes: exploration of predictive factors. Diabetes Care 34, 296–301.
32. H Soltani , FM Dickinson , J Kalk et al. (2008) Breast feeding practices and views among diabetic women: a retrospective cohort study. Midwifery 24, 471–479.
34. JS Taylor , JE Kacmar , M Nothnagle et al. (2005) A systematic review of the literature associating breastfeeding with type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr 24, 320–326.
35. NM Hurst (2007) Recognizing and treating delayed or failed lactogenesis II. J Midwifery Womens Health 52, 588–594.
36. KK Trout , T Averbuch & M Barowski (2011) Promoting breastfeeding among obese women and women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Curr Diab Rep 11, 7–12.
37. L Gatti (2008) Maternal perceptions of insufficient milk supply in breastfeeding. J Nurs Scholarsh 40, 355–363.
38. E Brownell , CR Howard , RA Lawrence et al. (2012) Delayed onset lactogenesis II predicts the cessation of any or exclusive breastfeeding. J Pediatr 161, 608–614.
39. K DaMota , J Banuelos , J Goldbronn et al. (2012) Maternal request for in-hospital supplementation of healthy breastfed infants among low-income women. J Hum Lact 28, 476–482.
42. BC Gilbert , HB Shulman , LA Fischer et al. (1999) The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS): methods and 1996 response rates from 11 states. Matern Child Health J 3, 199–209.
44. AS Hosler , SG Nayak & AM Radigan (2010) Agreement between self-report and birth certificate for gestational diabetes mellitus: New York State PRAMS. Matern Child Health J 14, 786–789.
45. M Kotelchuck (1994) An evaluation of the Kessner Adequacy of Prenatal Care Index and a proposed Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index. Am J Public Health 84, 1414–1420.
46. D Simmons , C Conroy & CF Thompson (2004) In-hospital breast feeding rates among women with gestational diabetes and pregestational type 2 diabetes in South Auckland. Diabet Med 22, 177–181.
48. S Sorkio , D Cuthbertson , S Barlund et al. (2010) Breastfeeding patterns of mothers with type 1 diabetes: results from an infant feeding trial. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 26, 206–211.
49. LA Nommsen-Rivers , LM Dolan & B Huang (2012) Timing of stage II lactogenesis is predicted by antenatal metabolic health in a cohort of primiparas. Breastfeed Med 7, 43–49.
50. E Stage , H Norgard , P Damm et al. (2006) Long-term breast-feeding in women with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 29, 771–774.
51. LH Amir & SM Donath (2003) Does maternal smoking have a negative physiological effect on breastfeeding? The epidemiological evidence. Breastfeed Rev 11, 19–29.