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Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) project

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2007

N Slimani*
Affiliation:
Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
M Fahey
Affiliation:
Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
A Welch
Affiliation:
Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, UK
E Wirfält
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Orthopaedics, Lund University, University Hospital Malmö, Sweden
C Stripp
Affiliation:
Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark
E Bergström
Affiliation:
Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Sweden
J Linseisen
Affiliation:
Division of Clinical Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Centre, Heidelberg, Germany
MB Schulze
Affiliation:
German Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Germany
C Bamia
Affiliation:
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Greece
Y Chloptsios
Affiliation:
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Greece
F Veglia
Affiliation:
Institute for Scientific Interchange Foundation, Turin, Italy
S Panico
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University Federico II, Naples, Italy
HB Bueno-de-Mesquita
Affiliation:
Department of Chronic Diseases Epidemiology, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
MC Ocké
Affiliation:
Department of Chronic Diseases Epidemiology, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
M Brustad
Affiliation:
Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Norway
E Lund
Affiliation:
Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Norway
CA González
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Spain
A Barcos
Affiliation:
Service of Surveillance and Epidemiological Control, Institute of Public Health of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
G Berglund
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Orthopaedics, Lund University, University Hospital Malmö, Sweden
A Winkvist
Affiliation:
Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Sweden
A Mulligan
Affiliation:
Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, UK
P Appleby
Affiliation:
Cancer Research UK, Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, UK
K Overvad
Affiliation:
Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Aarhus, Denmark
A Tjønneland
Affiliation:
17Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark
F Clavel-Chapelon
Affiliation:
INSERM, U521, Institute Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France
E Kesse
Affiliation:
INSERM, U521, Institute Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France
P Ferrari
Affiliation:
Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
WA Van Staveren
Affiliation:
Department of Human Nutrition and Epidemiology, Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands
E Riboli
Affiliation:
Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
*
*Corresponding author: Email Slimani@iarc.fr
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Abstract

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Objective:

To describe the diversity in dietary patterns existing across centres/regions participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

Design and setting:

Single 24-hour dietary recall measurements were obtained by means of standardised face-to-face interviews using the EPIC-SOFT software. These have been used to present a graphic multi-dimensional comparison of the adjusted mean consumption of 22 food groups.

Subjects:

In total, 35 955 men and women, aged 35–74 years, participating in the EPIC nested calibration study.

Results:

Although wide differences were observed across centres, the countries participating in EPIC are characterised by specific dietary patterns. Overall, Italy and Greece have a dietary pattern characterised by plant foods (except potatoes) and a lower consumption of animal and processed foods, compared with the other EPIC countries. France and particularly Spain have more heterogeneous dietary patterns, with a relatively high consumption of both plant foods and animal products. Apart from characteristics specific to vegetarian groups, the UK ‘health-conscious’ group shares with the UK general population a relatively high consumption of tea, sauces, cakes, soft drinks (women), margarine and butter. In contrast, the diet in the Nordic countries, The Netherlands, Germany and the UK general population is relatively high in potatoes and animal, processed and sweetened/refined foods, with proportions varying across countries/centres. In these countries, consumption of vegetables and fruit is similar to, or below, the overall EPIC means, and is low for legumes and vegetable oils. Overall, dietary patterns were similar for men and women, although there were large gender differences for certain food groups.

Conclusions:

There are considerable differences in food group consumption and dietary patterns among the EPIC study populations. This large heterogeneity should be an advantage when investigating the relationship between diet and cancer and formulating new aetiological hypotheses related to dietary patterns and disease.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © CABI Publishing 2002

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