1Wurtman RJ, Wurtman JJ. Carbohydrates and depression. Sci. Amer. 1989; 260: 50–7.
2Rosenthal NE, Genhart MJ, Caballero B, Jacobsen FM, Skwerer RG, Coursey RD, Rogers S, Spring BJ. Psychobiological effects of carbohydrate- and protein-rich meals in patients with seasonal affective disorder and normal controls. Biol. Psychiat. 1989; 25: 1029–40.
3de Castro JM. Macronutrient relationships with meal patterns and mood in spontaneous feeding behavior of humans. Physiol. Behav. 1987; 39: 561–9.
4Jansen A, van den Hout MA, Griez E. Does bingeing restore bulimics' alleged 5HT deficiency? Behav. Res. Ther. 1989; 27: 555–60.
5Keith RE, O'Keefe KA, Blessing DL, Wilson DG. Alternations in dietary carbohydrate, protein and fat intake and mood state in trained females cyclists. Med. Sci. Sports Exer. 1991; 23: 212–6.
6Deijen JB, Heemstra ML, Orlebeke JF. Dietary effects on mood and performance. J. Psychiat. Res. 1989; 23: 275–83.
7Prusaczk WK, Dishman RK, Cureton KJ. No effect of glycogen depleting exercise and altered diet composition on mood state. Med. Sci. Sports Exer. 1992; 24: 708–13.
8Wurtman RJ, Hefti F, Melamed E. Precursor control of neurotransmitters. Pharmacol. Rev. 1981; 32: 315–35.
9Spring B, Chiodo J, Bowen DJ. Carbohydrates tryptophan and behavior: a methodological review. Psychol. Bull. 1987; 102: 234–56.
10Lieberman HR, Caballero B, Finer N. The composition of lunch determines afternoon plasma tryptophan ratios in humans. J. Neural Trans. 1986; 65: 211–7.
11Teff KL, Young SN, Blundell JE. The effect of protein or carbohydrate breakfasts on subsequent plasma amino acid levels satiety and nutrient selection in normal males. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1989; 34: 829–37.
12Pijl H, Koppeschaar HPF, Cohen AF, Iestra JA, Schoemaker HC, Frolich M, Onkenhout W, Meinders A.E. Evidence for brain serotonin-mediated control of carbohydrate consumption in normal weight and obese humans. Int. J. Obes. 1993; 17: 513–20.
13Benton D, Greenfield K, Morgan M. The development of the attitudes to chocolate questionnaire. Person. Individ. Diff. 1998; 24: 513–20.
14Hetherington MM, MacDiarmid JI. Chocolate addiction: a preliminary study of its description and its relationship to problem eating. Appetite 1993; 21: 233–46.
15Schuman M, Gitlin M.J, Fairbanks L. Sweets chocolate and atypical depressive traits. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 1987; 175: 491–5.
16Hill AJ, Weaver CFL, Blundell JE. Food craving, dietary restraint and mood. Appetite 1991; 17: 187–97.
17Lester D, Bernard D. Liking for chocolate depression and suicidal preoccupation. Psychol. Rep. 1991; 69: 570.
18Willner P, Benton D, Brown E, Cheeta S, Davies G, Morgan J, Morgan M. Depression increases craving for sweet rewards in animal and human models of depression and craving. Psychopharmacol. 1998; 136: 272–83.
19Benton D. Chocolate craving: a biological or psychological phenomenon? In: Knight I, ed. Chocolate and Cocoa: A Review of Health and Nutrition. Oxford: Blackwell Science Limited, 1999: in press.
20DiTomaso E, Beltramo M, Piomelli D. Brain cannabinoids in chocolate. Nature 1996; 382: 677–8.
21Rozin P, Levine E, Stoess C. Chocolate craving and liking. Appetite 1991; 17: 199–212.
22Reid LD. Endogenous opioid peptides and regulation of drinking and feeding. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1985; 42: 1099–132.
23Giraudo SQ, Grace MK, Welch CC, Billington CJ, Levine AS. Nalxone's anoretic effect is dependent upon the relative palatability of food. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 1993; 46: 917–21.
24Spiegel TA, Stunkard AJ, Shrager EE, O'Brien CP, Morrsion MF. Effect of naltrexone on food intake hunger and satiety in obese humans. Physiol. Behav. 1987; 40: 135–41.
25Wolkowitz OM, Doran MR, Cohen RM, Cohen TN, Wise TN, Pickar D. Single-dose naloxone acutely reduced eating in obese humans: Behavioral and biochemical effects. Biol. Psychiat. 1988; 24: 483–7.
26Trenchard E, Silverstone T. Naloxone reduces the food intake of normal human volunteers. Appetite 1982; 4: 249–57.
27Yeomans MR, Wright P, Macleod HA, Critchley JA. Effects of nalmefene on feeding in humans. Psychopharmacol. 1990; 100: 426–32.
28Mandenoff AF, Fumerton M, Apfelbaum M, Margules DL. Endogenous opiates and energy balance. Science 1982; 215: 1536–7.
29Brozek J. Psychological effects of thiamine restriction and deprivation in normal young men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1957; 5: 109–18.
30Sterner RT, Price RW. Restricted riboflavin: within subject behavioral effects in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1973; 26: 150–60.
31Kinsman RH, Hood J. Some behavioral effects of ascorbic acid deficiency. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1971; 24: 455–64.
32Hunter R, Jones M, Jones TG, Matthews DM. Serum B12 and folate concentrations in mental patients. Brit. J. Psychiat. 1967; 113: 1291–5.
33Botez MI, Fontaine F, Botez T, Bachevalier J. Folate-responsive neurological and mental disorders: Report of 16 cases. Eur. Neurol. 1977; 16: 230–46.
34Carney MWP, Sheffield MT. Serum folic acid and B12 in 272 psychiatric inpatients. Psychol. Med. 1978; 8: 139–44.
35Abou-Saleh MT, Coppen C. The biology of folate in depression: implications for nutritional hypotheses of the psychoses. J. Psychiatr. Res. 1986; 20: 91–101.
36Hector M, Burton JR. What are the psychiatric manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency? J. Am. Ger. Soc. 1988; 36: 1105–12.
37Sommer BR, Wolkowitz OM. RBC folic acid levels and cognitive performance in elderly patients: A preliminary report. Biol. Psychiat. 1988; 24: 352–4.
38Shorvon SD, Carney MWP, Chanarin I, Reynolds H. The neuropsychiatry of megaloblastic anaemia. Br. Med. J. 1980; 281: 1036–8.
39Bell IR, Edman JS, Marby DW, Satlin A, Dreier T, Liptzin B, Cole JO. Vitamin B12 and folate status in acute geropsychiatric inpatients: affective and cognitive characteristics of a vitamin nondeficient population. Biol. Psychiat. 1990; 27: 125–37.
40Botez MI, Botez T, Maag U. The Wechsler subtests in mild organic brain damage associated with folate deficiency. Psychol. Med. 1984; 14: 31–437.
41Exton-Smith AN, Scott DL, eds. Vitamins in the elderly. Bristol: John Wright and Son, 1968.
42Goodwin JS, Goodwin J.M, Garry PJ. Association between nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a healthy elderly population. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1983; 249: 2917–21.
43Chome J, Paul T, Pudel V, Bleyl H, Heseker H, Huppe R, Kubler W. Effects of suboptimal vitamin status on behavior. Bibliotheca Nutr. Dieta. 1986; 38: 94–104.
44Benton D, Haller J, Fordy J. Vitamin supplementation for one year improves mood. Neuropsychobiol. 1995; 32: 98–105.
45Smidt LJ, Cremin FM, Grivetti LE, Clifford AJ. Influence of thiamin supplementation on the health and general well-being of an elderly Irish population with marginal thiamin deficiency. J. Gerontol. 1991; 46: M16–M22.
46Heseker H, Kubler W, Westenhofer J, Pudel V. Psychische Veranderungen als Fruhzeichen einer suboptimalen Vitaminversorgung Ernahrungs-Umschau 1990; 37: 87–94.
47Benton D, Griffiths R, Haller J. Thiamine supplementation mood and cognitive functioning. Psychopharmacology 1997; 129: 66–71.
48Benton D, Haller J, Fordy J. The vitamin status of a sample of young British adults. Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res. 1997; 67: 34–40.
49Benton D. Vitamin-mineral supplements and intelligence. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 1992; 51: 295–302.
50Quintas M, Requejo AM, Ortega RM, Redondo MR, Lopez-Sobaler AM, Gaspar MJ. The female Spanish population: a group at risk of nutritional iron deficiency. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 1997; 48: 271–9.
51Milman N, Clausen J, Byg KE. Iron status in 268 Danish women aged 18–30 years: influence of menstruation, contraceptive method and iron supplementation. Ann. Hematol. 1998; 77: 13–19.
52Fordy J, Benton D. Does low iron status influence psychological functioning? J. Human Nutr. Dietet. 1994; 7: 127–33.
53Deakin V. Iron deficiency in athletes: identification prevention and dietary treatment. In: Burke L, Deakin V. eds. Clinical Sports Nutrition. Sydney, McGraw-Hill. 1994.
54Rangan AM, Blight GD, Binns CW. Iron status and non-specific symptoms of female students. J. Amer. Coll. Nutr. 1998; 17: 351–5.
55Nielson P, Nachtigall D. Iron supplementation in athletes. Current recommendations. Sports Med. 1998; 26: 207–16.
56Thirlaway K, Benton D. Participation in physical activity and cardiovascular fitness have different effects on mental health and mood. J. Psychosom. Res. 1992; 36: 657–65.