Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Evaluation of using spot urine to replace 24 h urine sodium and potassium excretions

  • Eveline JC Hooft van Huysduynen (a1), Paul JM Hulshof (a1), Linde van Lee (a1), Anouk Geelen (a1), Edith JM Feskens (a1), Pieter van ’t Veer (a1), Cees JM van Woerkum (a2) and Jeanne HM de Vries (a1)...

Abstract

Objective

The most accurate method to estimate Na and K intakes is to determine 24 h urinary excretions of these minerals. However, collecting 24 h urine is burdensome. Therefore it was studied whether spot urine could be used to replace 24 h urine samples.

Design

Participants collected 24 h urine and kept one voiding sample separate. Na, K and creatinine concentrations were analysed in both 24 h and spot urine samples. Also 24 h excretions of Na and K were predicted from spot urine concentrations using the Tanaka and Danish methods.

Setting

In 2011 and 2012, urine samples were collected and brought to the study centre at Wageningen University, the Netherlands.

Subjects

Women (n 147) aged 19–26 years.

Results

According to p-aminobenzoic acid excretions, 127 urine collections were complete. Correlations of Na:creatinine, K:creatinine and Na:K between spot urine and 24 h urine were 0·68, 0·57 and 0·64, respectively. Mean 24 h Na excretion predicted with the Tanaka method was higher (difference 21·2 mmol/d, P<0·001) than the measured excretion of 131·6 mmol/d and mean 24 h Na excretion predicted with the Danish method was similar (difference 3·2 mmol/d, P=0·417) to the measured excretion. The mean 24 h K excretion predicted with the Tanaka method was higher (difference 13·6 mmol/d, P<0·001) than the measured excretion of 66·8 mmol/d. Bland–Altman plots showed large individual differences between predicted and measured 24 h Na and K excretions.

Conclusions

The ratios of Na:creatinine and K:creatinine in spot urine were reasonably well associated with their respective ratios in 24 h urine and appear to predict mean 24 h Na excretion of these young, Caucasian women.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Evaluation of using spot urine to replace 24 h urine sodium and potassium excretions
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Evaluation of using spot urine to replace 24 h urine sodium and potassium excretions
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Evaluation of using spot urine to replace 24 h urine sodium and potassium excretions
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email eveline.hooft@wur.nl

References

Hide All
1.Yang, Q, Liu, T, Kuklina, Eet al. (2011) Sodium and potassium intake and mortality among US adults: prospective data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med 171, 11831191.
2.Rose, G, Stamler, J, Stamler, Ret al. (1988) Intersalt: an international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results for 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion. BMJ 297, 319328.
3.Geleijnse, JM, Kok, FJ & Grobbee, DE (2003) Blood pressure response to changes in sodium and potassium intake: a metaregression analysis of randomised trials. J Hum Hypertens 17, 471480.
4.World Health Organization (2012) Guideline: Sodium Intake for Adults and Children. Geneva: WHO.
5.Brown, IJ, Tzoulaki, I, Candeias, Vet al. (2009) Salt intakes around the world: implications for public health. Int J Epidemiol 38, 791813.
6.World Health Organization (2012) Guideline: Potassium Intake for Adults and Children. Geneva: WHO.
7.Welch, AA, Fransen, H, Jenab, Met al. (2009) Variation in intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and potassium in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, Suppl. 4, S101S121.
8.Bentley, B (2006) A review of methods to measure dietary sodium intake. J Cardiovasc Nurs 21, 6367.
9.Bingham, SA, Cassidy, A, Cole, TJet al. (1995) Validation of weighed records and other methods of dietary assessment using the 24 h urine nitrogen technique and other biological markers. Br J Nutr 73, 531550.
10.Bates, C, Thurnham, D & Bingham, S (1997) Biochemical markers of nutrient intake. In Design Concepts in Nutritional Epidemiology, 1st ed., pp. 192265 [BM Margetts and M Neslon, editors]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
11.Ilich, JZ, Blanuša, M, Orlić, ŽCet al. (2009) Comparison of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, zinc, and creatinine concentration in 24-h and spot urine samples in women. Clin Chem Lab Med 47, 216221.
12.Tanaka, T, Okamura, T, Miura, Ket al. (2002) A simple method to estimate populational 24-h urinary sodium and potassium excretion using a casual urine specimen. J Hum Hypertens 16, 97103.
13.Toft, U, Cerqueira, C, Andreasen, AHet al. (2013) Estimating salt intake in a Caucasian population: can spot urine substitute 24-hour urine samples? Eur J Prev Cardiol (Epublication ahead of print version).
14.Mann, SJ & Gerber, LM (2010) Estimation of 24-hour sodium excretion from spot urine samples. J Clin Hypertens 12, 174180.
15.Brown, IJ, Dyer, AR, Chan, Qet al. (2013) Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations: the INTERSALT study. Am J Epidemiol 177, 11801192.
16.Ji, C, Sykes, L, Paul, Cet al. (2012) Systematic review of studies comparing 24-hour and spot urine collections for estimating population salt intake. Rev Panam Salud Publica 32, 307315.
17.Kawasaki, T, Uezono, K, Itoh, Ket al. (1991) Prediction of 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion from age, body weight and height of an individual and its application. Jpn J Public Health 38, 567574.
18.Manchester, RC (1933) The diurnal rhythm in water and mineral exchange. J Clin Invest 12, 9951008.
19.Bingham, S & Cummings, JH (1983) The use of 4-aminobenzoic acid as a marker to validate the completeness of 24 h urine collections in man. Clin Sci (Lond) 64, 629635.
20.Jakobsen, J, Ovesen, L, Fagt, Set al. (1997) Para-aminobenzoic acid used as a marker for completeness of 24 hour urine: assessment of control limits for a specific HPLC method. Eur J Clin Nutr 51, 514519.
21.Bland, JM & Altman, DG (1986) Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet 1, 307310.
22.Holbrook, JT, Patterson, KY, Bodner, JEet al. (1984) Sodium and potassium intake and balance in adults consuming self-selected diets. Am J Clin Nutr 40, 786793.
23.Wang, CY, Cogswell, ME, Loria, CMet al. (2013) Urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and chloride, but not iodine, varies by timing of collection in a 24-hour calibration study. J Nutr 143, 12761282.
24.van Lee, L, Geelen, A, Hooft van Huysduynen, EJet al. (2012) The Dutch Healthy Diet index (DHD-index): an instrument to measure adherence to the Dutch Guidelines for a Healthy Diet. Nutr J 11, 49.
25.Narayanan, S & Appleton, HD (1980) Creatinine: a review. Clin Chem 26, 11191126.
26.Johansson, G, Bingham, S & Vahter, M (1999) A method to compensate for incomplete 24-hour urine collections in nutritional epidemiology studies. Public Health Nutr 2, 587591.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Evaluation of using spot urine to replace 24 h urine sodium and potassium excretions

  • Eveline JC Hooft van Huysduynen (a1), Paul JM Hulshof (a1), Linde van Lee (a1), Anouk Geelen (a1), Edith JM Feskens (a1), Pieter van ’t Veer (a1), Cees JM van Woerkum (a2) and Jeanne HM de Vries (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.