1. Beaglehole, R, Bonita, R, Horton, R et al. (2011) Priority actions for the non-communicable disease crisis. Lancet 377, 1438–1447.
2. World Health Organization (2014) Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases 2014. Geneva: WHO.
3. Chaker, L, Falla, A, van der Lee, SJ et al. (2015) The global impact of non-communicable diseases on macro-economic productivity: a systematic review. Eur J Epidemiol 30, 357–395.
4. Muka, T, Imo, D, Jaspers, L et al. (2015) The global impact of non-communicable diseases on healthcare spending and national income: a systematic review. Eur J Epidemiol 30, 251–277.
5. Lee, JT, Hamid, F, Pati, S et al. (2015) Impact of noncommunicable disease multimorbidity on healthcare utilisation and out-of-pocket expenditures in middle-income countries: cross sectional analysis. PLoS One 10, e0127199.
6. He, K (2009) Fish, long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and prevention of cardiovascular disease – eat fish or take fish oil supplement? Prog Cardiovasc Dis 52, 95–114.
7. Zhao, LG, Sun, JW, Yang, Y et al. (2016) Fish consumption and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Eur J Clin Nutr 70, 155–161.
8. Zheng, J, Huang, T, Yu, Y et al. (2012) Fish consumption and CHD mortality: an updated meta-analysis of seventeen cohort studies. Public Health Nutr 15, 725–737.
9. Wallin, A, Di Giuseppe, D, Orsini, N et al. (2012) Fish consumption, dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids, and risk of type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Diabetes Care 35, 918–929.
10. Daviglus, ML, Stamler, J, Orencia, AJ et al. (1997) Fish consumption and the 30-year risk of fatal myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 336, 1046–1053.
11. Albert, CM, Hennekens, CH, O’Donnell, CJ et al. (1998) Fish consumption and risk of sudden cardiac death. JAMA 279, 23–28.
12. Yuan, JM, Ross, RK, Gao, YT et al. (2001) Fish and shellfish consumption in relation to death from myocardial infarction among men in Shanghai, China. Am J Epidemiol 154, 809–816.
13. Kuhn, T, Teucher, B, Kaaks, R et al. (2013) Fish consumption and the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in the German arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Germany). Br J Nutr 110, 1118–1125.
14. Mann, JI, Appleby, PN, Key, TJ et al. (1997) Dietary determinants of ischaemic heart disease in health conscious individuals. Heart 78, 450–455.
15. Osler, M, Andreasen, AH & Hoidrup, S (2003) No inverse association between fish consumption and risk of death from all-causes, and incidence of coronary heart disease in middle-aged, Danish adults. J Clin Epidemiol 56, 274–279.
16. Lee, JE, McLerran, DF, Rolland, B et al. (2013) Meat intake and cause-specific mortality: a pooled analysis of Asian prospective cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr 98, 1032–1041.
17. Wang, MP, Thomas, GN, Ho, SY et al. (2011) Fish consumption and mortality in Hong Kong Chinese – the LIMOR study. Ann Epidemiol 21, 164–169.
18. Gillum, RF, Mussolino, M & Madans, JH (2000) The relation between fish consumption, death from all causes, and incidence of coronary heart disease. The NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. J Clin Epidemiol 53, 237–244.
19. Olsen, A, Egeberg, R, Halkjaer, J et al. (2011) Healthy aspects of the Nordic diet are related to lower total mortality. J Nutr 141, 639–644.
20. Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J et al. (2009) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med 6, e1000097.
21. Stang, A (2010) Critical evaluation of the Newcastle–Ottawa scale for the assessment of the quality of nonrandomized studies in meta-analyses. Eur J Epidemiol 25, 603–605.
22. Berlin, JA, Longnecker, MP & Greenland, S (1993) Meta-analysis of epidemiologic dose–response data. Epidemiology 4, 218–228.
23. Orsini, N, Bellocco, R & Greenland, S (2006) Generalized least squares for trend estimation of summarized dose–response data. Stata J 6, 40–57.
24. Hamling, J, Lee, P, Weitkunat, R et al. (2008) Facilitating meta‐analyses by deriving relative effect and precision estimates for alternative comparisons from a set of estimates presented by exposure level or disease category. Stat Med 27, 954–970.
25. Orsini, N, Li, R, Wolk, A et al. (2012) Meta-analysis for linear and nonlinear dose–response relations: examples, an evaluation of approximations, and software. Am J Epidemiol 175, 66–73.
26. Higgins, JP, Thompson, SG, Deeks, JJ et al. (2003) Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 327, 557–560.
27. Egger, M, Smith, GD, Schneider, M et al. (1997) Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 315, 629–634.
28. Begg, CB & Mazumdar, M (1994) Operating characteristics of a rank correlation test for publication bias. Biometrics 50, 1088–1101.
29. Bellavia, A, Larsson, SC & Wolk, A (2017) Fish consumption and all-cause mortality in a cohort of Swedish men and women. J Intern Med 281, 86–95.
30. Engeset, D, Braaten, T, Teucher, B et al. (2015) Fish consumption and mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Eur J Epidemiol 30, 57–70.
31. Nagata, C, Takatsuka, N & Shimizu, H (2002) Soy and fish oil intake and mortality in a Japanese community. Am J Epidemiol 156, 824–831.
32. Takata, Y, Zhang, X, Li, H et al. (2013) Fish intake and risks of total and cause-specific mortality in 2 population-based cohort studies of 134,296 men and women. Am J Epidemiol 178, 46–57.
33. Yamagishi, K, Iso, H, Fukui, M et al. (2008) Fish, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and mortality from cardiovascular diseases in a nationwide community-based cohort of japanese men and women: the JACC (Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk) Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 52, 988–996.
34. Owen, AJ, Magliano, DJ, O’Dea, K et al. (2016) Polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and risk of cardiovascular mortality in a low fish-consuming population: a prospective cohort analysis. Eur J Nutr 55, 1605–1613.
35. Bell, GA, Kantor, ED, Lampe, JW et al. (2014) Intake of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from diet and supplements in relation to mortality. Am J Epidemiol 179, 710–720.
36. Folsom, AR & Demissie, Z (2004) Fish intake, marine omega-3 fatty acids, and mortality in a cohort of postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 160, 1005–1010.
37. Björnberg, KA, Vahter, M, Grawé, KP et al. (2005) Methyl mercury exposure in Swedish women with high fish consumption. Sci Total Environ 341, 45–52.
38. Fakour, H, Esmaili-Sari, A & Zayeri, F (2010) Mercury exposure assessment in Iranian women’s hair of a port town with respect to fish consumption and amalgam fillings. Sci Total Environ 408, 1538–1543.
39. McDowell, MA, Dillon, CF, Osterloh, J et al. (2004) Hair mercury levels in US children and women of childbearing age: reference range data from NHANES 1999–2000. Environ Health Perspect 112, 1165–1171.
40. Raymond, MR, Christensen, KY, Thompson, BA et al. (2016) Associations between fish consumption and contaminant biomarkers with cardiovascular conditions among older male anglers in Wisconsin. J Occup Environ Med 58, 676–682.
41. Brune, D, Nordberg, G, Vesterberg, O et al. (1991) A review of normal concentrations of mercury in human blood. Sci Total Environ 100, 235–282.
42. Sheehan, MC, Burke, TA, Navas-Acien, A et al. (2014) Global methylmercury exposure from seafood consumption and risk of developmental neurotoxicity: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ 92, 254F–269F.
43. Sioen, I, De Henauw, S, Van Camp, J et al. (2009) Comparison of the nutritional–toxicological conflict related to seafood consumption in different regions worldwide. Reg Toxicol Pharmacol 55, 219–228.
44. Mozaffarian, D, Lemaitre, RN, Kuller, LH et al. (2003) Cardiac benefits of fish consumption may depend on the type of fish meal consumed: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Circulation 107, 1372–1377.
45. Bergkvist, C, Berglund, M, Glynn, A et al. (2015) Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of myocardial infarction – a population-based prospective cohort study. Int J Cardiol 183, 242–248.
46. Bergkvist, C, Kippler, M, Larsson, S et al. (2014) Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls is associated with increased risk of stroke in women. J Intern Med 276, 248–259.
47. Welch, AA, Lund, E, Amiano, P et al. (2002) Variability of fish consumption within the 10 European countries participating in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Public Health Nutr 5, 1273–1285.
48. Wang, DD, Li, Y, Chiuve, SE et al. (2016) Association of specific dietary fats with total and cause-specific mortality. JAMA Intern Med 176, 1134–1145.
49. de Mello, VD, Schwab, U, Kolehmainen, M et al. (2011) A diet high in fatty fish, bilberries and wholegrain products improves markers of endothelial function and inflammation in individuals with impaired glucose metabolism in a randomised controlled trial: the Sysdimet study. Diabetologia 54, 2755–2767.
50. Rangel-Huerta, OD, Aguilera, CM, Mesa, MD et al. (2012) Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation on inflammatory biomarkers: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Br J Nutr 107, Suppl. 2, S159–S170.
51. Robinson, LE & Mazurak, VC (2013)
N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: relationship to inflammation in healthy adults and adults exhibiting features of metabolic syndrome. Lipids 48, 319–332.
52. Chowdhury, R, Stevens, S, Gorman, D et al. (2012) Association between fish consumption, long chain omega 3 fatty acids, and risk of cerebrovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 345, e6698.
53. Villegas, R, Takata, Y, Murff, H et al. (2015) Fish, omega-3 long-chain fatty acids, and all-cause mortality in a low-income US population: results from the Southern Community Cohort Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 25, 651–658.
54. Lu, Z, Chen, TC, Zhang, A et al. (2007) An evaluation of the vitamin D3 content in fish: is the vitamin D content adequate to satisfy the dietary requirement for vitamin D? J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 103, 642–644.
55. D’Elia, L, Iannotta, C, Sabino, P et al. (2014) Potassium-rich diet and risk of stroke: updated meta-analysis. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 24, 585–587.
56. Guasch-Ferre, M, Babio, N, Martinez-Gonzalez, MA et al. (2015) Dietary fat intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in a population at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 102, 1563–1573.
57. Wennberg, M, Tornevi, A, Johansson, I et al. (2012) Diet and lifestyle factors associated with fish consumption in men and women: a study of whether gender differences can result in gender-specific confounding. Nutr J 11, 101.