Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Fruit and vegetable intake in Austrian adults: intake frequency, serving sizes, reasons for and barriers to consumption, and potential for increasing consumption

  • Manuel Schätzer (a1) (a2), Petra Rust (a1) and Ibrahim Elmadfa (a1)

Abstract

Objective

To assess the intake frequency of fruit and vegetables, serving sizes, reasons for and barriers to consumption, and the potential for increasing fruit and vegetable intake.

Design

A nationwide postal questionnaire survey was conducted in 2006 over all four seasons. The participants were stratified according to occupation and sex. The response rate for 5130 questionnaires sent out was 52·7 %.

Setting

Austria.

Subjects

Austrian adults, aged 19–64 years.

Results

Daily fruit consumption was reported by 57·1 % of the participants and daily vegetable consumption by 36·2 %. On average, 2·1 (sd 1·9) servings (250 (sd 225) g) of fruit and 1·7 (sd 1·3) servings (198 (sd 159) g) of vegetables were consumed daily. Women ate fruit and vegetables both more frequently and in greater quantities than men. Both intake frequency and the number of fruit and vegetable servings were largely independent of seasonal fluctuations. The primary reason for the consumption of both fruit and vegetables was taste. The greatest barrier to higher intake was the perception that current individual consumption was already sufficient. Price did not constitute a relevant barrier in Austria. At present, the potential for increasing fruit and vegetable intake can be estimated at two servings.

Conclusions

Austrian adults still consume less fruit and vegetables than recommended. Strategies to increase intake should pay more attention to the taste instead of the various health aspects.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Fruit and vegetable intake in Austrian adults: intake frequency, serving sizes, reasons for and barriers to consumption, and potential for increasing consumption
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Fruit and vegetable intake in Austrian adults: intake frequency, serving sizes, reasons for and barriers to consumption, and potential for increasing consumption
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Fruit and vegetable intake in Austrian adults: intake frequency, serving sizes, reasons for and barriers to consumption, and potential for increasing consumption
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email petra.rust@univie.ac.at

References

Hide All
1.World Health Organization (2003) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 916. Geneva: WHO.
2.Pomerleau, J, Mc Kee, M, Lobstein, T & Knai, C (2003) The burden of disease attributable to nutrition in Europe. Public Health Nutr 6, 453461.
3.Steinmetz, K & Potter, JD (1996) Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review. J Am Diet Assoc 96, 10271039.
4.Riboli, E & Norat, T (2003) Epidemiologic evidence of the protective effect of fruit and vegetables on cancer risk. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 559569.
5.Gonzalez, C, Navarro, C, Martinez, C et al. (2004) The European prospective investigation about cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Rev Esp Salud Publica 78, 167176.
6.Word Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007) Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: AICR.
7.Hung, H-C, Joshipura, KJ, Jiang, R, Hu, FB, Hunter, D, Smith-Warner, SA, Colditz, GA, Rosner, B, Spiegelman, D & Willett, WC (2004) Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of major chronic disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 96, 15771584.
8.Takachi, R, Inoue, M, Ishihara, J, Kurahashi, N, Iwasaki, M, Sasazuki, S, Iso, H, Tsubono, Y & Tsugane, S (2008) Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of total cancer and cardiovascular disease: Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study. Am J Epidemiol 167, 5970.
9.Dauchet, L, Amouyel, P, Hercberg, S & Dallongeville, J (2006) Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Nutr 136, 25882593.
10.He, FJ, Nowson, CA, Lucas, M & MacGregor, GA (2007) Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables is related to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Hum Hypertens 21, 717728.
11.Dauchet, L, Amouyel, P & Dallongeville, J (2005) Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Neurology 65, 11931197.
12.He, FJ, Nowson, CA & MacGragor, GA (2006) Fruit and vegetable consumption and stroke: meta-analysis of cohort studies. Lancet 367, 320326.
13.Hamer, M & Chida, Y (2007) Intake of fruit, vegetables, and antioxidants and risk of type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Hypertens 25, 23612369.
14.Tohill, BC (2005) Dietary Intake of Fruit and Vegetables and Management of Body Weight. Background Paper for the Joint FAO/WHO Workshop on Fruit and Vegetables for Health, 1–3 September 2004, Kobe, Japan. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
15.Ashfield-Watt, PAL (2006) Fruits and vegetables, 5+ a day: are we getting the message across? Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 15, 245252.
16.Yeh, M-C, Ickes, SB, Lowenstein, LM, Shuval, K, Ammerman, AS, Farris, R & Katz, DL (2008) Understanding barriers and facilitators of fruit and vegetable consumption among a diverse multi-ethnic population in the USA. Health Promot Int 23, 4251.
17.Kamphuis, CBM, Giskes, K, De Bruijn, G-J, Wendel-Vos, W, Brug, J & Van Lenthe, FJ (2006) Environmental determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among adults: a systematic review. Br J Nutr 96, 620635.
18.John, JH & Ziebland, S (2004) Reported barriers to eating more fruit and vegetables before and after participation in a randomized controlled trial: a qualitative study. Health Educ Res 19, 165174.
19.Maclellan, DL, Gottschall-Pass, K & Larsen, R (2004) Fruit and vegetable consumption: benefits and barriers. Can J Diet Pract Res 65, 101105.
20.Kromrey, H (2006) Empirische Sozialforschung, 11th ed., pp. 262265. Stuttgart: Lucius & Lucius.
21.Beer-Borst, S & Amado, R (1995) Validation of self-administered 24-hour recall questionnaire used in a large-scale dietary survey. Z Ernahrungswiss 34, 183189.
22.Dehne, LI, Klemm, C, Henseker, G & Hermann-Kunz, E (1999) The German Food Code and Nutrient Data Base (BLS II.2). Eur J Epidemiol 15, 355359.
23.Schofield, WN (1985) Predicting basal metabolic rate, new standards and review of previous work. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 39, 541.
24.Goldberg, GR, Black, AE, Jebb, SA, Cole, TJ, Murgatroyd, PR, Coward, WA & Prentice, AM (1991) Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology: 1. Derivation of cut-off limits to identify under-recording. Eur J Clin Nutr 45, 569581.
25.Black, AE, Goldberg, GR, Jebb, SA, Livingstone, MB, Cole, TJ & Prentice, AM (1991) Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology: 2. Evaluating the results of published surveys. Eur J Clin Nutr 45, 583599.
26.Black, AE (2000) Critical evaluation of energy intake using the Goldberg cut-off for energy intake:basal metabolic rate. A practical guide to its calculation, use and limitations. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 11191130.
27.Ferrari, P, Slimani, N, Ciampi, A et al. (2002) Evaluation of under- and overreporting of energy intake in the 24-hour diet recalls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Public Health Nutr 5, 13291345.
28.Elmadfa, I, Freisling, H, Koenig, J et al. (2003) Obst und Gemüse. In Österreichischer Ernährungsbericht 2003, 1st ed., pp. 228328 [I Elmadfa, editor]. Vienna: Department of Nutritional Sciences of the University of Vienna.
29.World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007) Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective, 1st ed., p. 28. Washington, DC: AICR.
30.Anderson, AS & Cox, DN (2000) Five a day – challenges and achievements. Nutr Food Sci 30, 3034.
31.Stewart, H, Blisard, N & Jolliffe, D (2003) Do income constraints inhibit spending on fruits and vegetables among low-income households? J Agric Resour Econ 28, 465480.
32.Cassady, D, Jetter, KM & Culp, J (2007) Is price a barrier to eating more fruits and vegetables for low-income families? J Am Diet Assoc 107, 19091915.
33.Claro, RM, Esvael do Carmo, HC, Sarti Machado, FM & Monteiro, CA (2007) Income, food prices, and participation of fruit and vegetables in the diet. Rev Saude Publica 41, 557564.
34.Kiefer, I, Rathmanner, T & Kunze, M (2005) Eating and dieting differences in men and women. J Mens Health Gend 2, 194201.
35.Kratt, P, Reynolds, K & Shewchuk, R (2000) The role of availability as a moderator of family fruit and vegetable consumption. Health Educ Behav 27, 471482.
36.Cullen, KW, Baranowski, T, Owens, E, Marsh, T, Rittenberry, L & De Moor, C (2003) Availability, accessibility, and preferences for fruit, 100 % fruit juice, and vegetables influence children’s dietary behaviour. Health Educ Behav 30, 615626.
37.Jago, R, Baranowski, T & Baranowski, JC (2007) Fruit and vegetable availability: a micro environmental mediating variable? Public Health Nutr 10, 681689.
38.Birner, A, Fülöp, G, Hlava, A, Sax, G & Winkler, P (2004) Gesundheit und Krankheit in Österreich – Österreichischer Gesundheitsbericht 2004, 1st ed., pp. 2131. Vienna: Österreichisches Bundesinstitut für Gesundheitswesen.
39.Friel, S, Newell, J & Kelleher, C (2005) Who eats four or more servings of fruit and vegetables per day? Multivariate classification tree analysis of data from the 1998 Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition in the Republic of Ireland. Public Health Nutr 8, 159169.
40.Agudo, A & Pera, G (1999) Vegetable and fruit consumption associated with anthropometric, dietary and lifestyle factors in Spain. Public Health Nutr 2, 263271.
41.Pollard, J, Greenwood, D, Kirk, S & Cade, J (2001) Lifestyle factors affecting fruit and vegetable consumption in the UK Women’s Cohort Study. Appetite 37, 7179.
42.Thompson, RL, Margetts, BM, Speller, VM & McVey, D (1999) The Health Education Authority’s health and lifestyle survey 1993: who are the low fruit and vegetable consumers? J Epidemiol Community Health 53, 294299.
43.Anderson, AS, Cox, DN, McKellar, S, Reynolds, J, Lean, ME & Mela, DJ (1998) Take Five, a nutrition education intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intakes: impact on attitudes towards dietary change. Br J Nutr 80, 133140.
44.Oppen, M, Sugarman, S & Foerster, SB (2002) Fruit and vegetable consumption in California adults: ten-year highlights from the California Dietary Practices Surveys 1989–1999. http://www.phi.org/pdf-library/fruit_survey1102.pdf (accessed June 2008).
45.Blanck, HM, Galuska, DA, Gillespie, C, Khan, LK, Serdula, MK, Solera, MK, Mokdad, AH & Cohen, LP (2007) Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults – United States in 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 56, 213217.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed