Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Funding quality pre-kindergarten slots with Philadelphia’s new ‘sugary drink tax’: simulating effects of using an excise tax to address a social determinant of health

  • Brent A Langellier (a1), Félice Lê-Scherban (a2) and Jonathan Purtle (a1)
Abstract
Objective

Philadelphia passed a 1·5-cent-per-ounce sweetened beverage tax (SBT). Revenue will fund 10 000 quality pre-kindergarten slots for poor children. It is imperative to understand how revenue from SBT can be used to fund programmes to address education and other social determinants of health. The objective of the present study was to simulate quality pre-kindergarten attendance, educational achievement and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption among Philadelphia children and adolescents under six intervention scenarios: (i) no intervention; (ii) 10 000 additional quality pre-kindergarten slots; (iii) a 1·5-cent-per-ounce SBT; (iv) expanded pre-kindergarten and 1·5-cent-per-ounce SBT; (v) a 3-cent-per-ounce SBT; and (vi) expanded pre-kindergarten and 3-cent-per-ounce SBT.

Design

We used an agent-based model to estimate pre-kindergarten enrolment, educational achievement and SSB consumption under the six policy scenarios. We identified key parameters in the model from the published literature and secondary analyses of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics – Child Development Supplement.

Setting

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Subjects

Philadelphia children and adolescents aged 4–18 years.

Results

A 1·5-cents-per-ounce tax would reduce SSB consumption by 1·3 drinks/week among Philadelphia children and adolescents relative to no intervention, with larger effects among children below the poverty level. Quality pre-kindergarten expansion magnifies the effect of the SBT by 8 %, but has the largest effect on moderate-income children just above the poverty level. The SBT and quality pre-kindergarten programme each reduce SSB consumption, but primarily benefit different children and adolescents.

Conclusions

Pairing an excise tax with a complementary programme to improve a social determinant of health represents a progressive strategy to combat obesity, a disease regressive in its social patterning.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Funding quality pre-kindergarten slots with Philadelphia’s new ‘sugary drink tax’: simulating effects of using an excise tax to address a social determinant of health
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Funding quality pre-kindergarten slots with Philadelphia’s new ‘sugary drink tax’: simulating effects of using an excise tax to address a social determinant of health
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Funding quality pre-kindergarten slots with Philadelphia’s new ‘sugary drink tax’: simulating effects of using an excise tax to address a social determinant of health
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Email bal95@drexel.edu
References
Hide All
1. Brownell, KD, Farley, T, Willett, WC et al. (2009) The public health and economic benefits of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages. N Engl J Med 361, 15991605.
2. Sturm, R, Powell, LM, Chriqui, JF et al. (2010) Soda taxes, soft drink consumption, and children’s body mass index. Health Aff (Millwood) 29, 10521058.
3. Nixon, L, Mejia, P, Cheyne, A et al. (2015) Big Soda’s long shadow: news coverage of local proposals to tax sugar-sweetened beverages in Richmond, El Monte and Telluride. Crit Public Health 25, 333347.
4. Falbe, J, Rojas, N, Grummon, AH et al. (2015) Higher retail prices of sugar-sweetened beverages 3 months after implementation of an excise tax in Berkeley, California. Am J Public Health 105, 21942201.
5. Andreyeva, T, Long, MW & Brownell, KD (2010) The impact of food prices on consumption: a systematic review of research on the price elasticity of demand for food. Am J Public Health 100, 216222.
6. Andreyeva, T, Chaloupka, FJ & Brownell, KD (2011) Estimating the potential of taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages to reduce consumption and generate revenue. Prev Med 52, 413416.
7. Fletcher, JM, Frisvold, DE & Tefft, N (2010) The effects of soft drink taxes on child and adolescent consumption and weight outcomes. J Public Econ 94, 967974.
8. Gross, CP, Soffer, B, Bach, PB et al. (2002) State expenditures for tobacco-control programs and the tobacco settlement. N Engl J Med 347, 10801086.
9. Chaloupka, FJ, Yurekli, A & Fong, GT (2012) Tobacco taxes as a tobacco control strategy. Tob Control 21, 172180.
10. Bettigole, C & Farley, TA (2016) The Philadelphia story: attacking behavioral and social determinants of health. Ann Intern Med 165, 593594.
11. Philadelphia Commission on Universal Pre-Kindergarten (2016) Philadelphia Commission on Universal Pre-Kindergarten Final Recommendations Report. Philadelphia, PA: City of Philadelphia.
12. Barnett, WS (2011) Effectiveness of early educational intervention. Science 333, 975978.
13. Burger, K (2010) How does early childhood care and education affect cognitive development? An international review of the effects of early interventions for children from different social backgrounds. Early Child Res Q 25, 140165.
14. Camilli, G, Vargas, S, Ryan, S et al. (2010) Meta-analysis of the effects of early education interventions on cognitive and social development. Teach Coll Rec 112, 579620.
15. Adler, NE & Newman, K (2002) Socioeconomic disparities in health: pathways and policies. Health Aff (Millwood) 21, 6076.
16. Cutler, DM & Lleras-Muney, A (2006) Education and Health: Evaluating Theories and Evidence. NBER Working Paper no. 12352. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
17. Grossman, M (2006) Education and nonmarket outcomes. In Handbook of the Economics of Education vol. 1, pp. 577634 [EA Hanushek and F Welch, editors]. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
18. Gortmaker, SL, Long, MW, Ward, ZJ et al. (2016) Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax. Philadelphia, PA: CHOICES Project, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.
19. Powell, L, Isgor, Z, Rimkus, L et al. (2014) Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Prices: Estimates from a National Sample of Food Outlets. Chicago, IL: Bridging the Gap Program, Health Policy Center, Institute for Health Research and Policy, University of Illinois at Chicago.
20. Smith, TA, Lin, B-H & Lee, J-Y (2010) Taxing Caloric Sweetened Beverages: Potential Effects on Beverage Consumption, Calorie Intake, and Obesity. Economic Research Report no. ERR-100. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
21. Powell, LM, Chriqui, J & Chaloupka, FJ (2009) Associations between state-level soda taxes and adolescent body mass index. J Adolesc Health 45, 3 Suppl., S57S63.
22. Public Health Management Corporation (2015) Community Health Data Base. http://www.chdbdata.org/ (accessed May 2016).
23. Kristensen, AH, Flottemesch, TJ, Maciosek, MV et al. (2014) Reducing childhood obesity through US federal policy: a microsimulation analysis. Am J Prev Med 47, 604612.
24. Gortmaker, SL, Wang, YC, Long, MW et al. (2015) Three interventions that reduce childhood obesity are projected to save more than they cost to implement. Health Aff (Millwood) 34, 19321939.
25. US Census Bureau (2016) 2010–2014 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates. http://factfinder.census.gov/ (accessed May 2016).
26. Link, BG & Phelan, JC (1996) Understanding sociodemographic differences in health – the role of fundamental social causes. Am J Public Health 86, 471473.
27. Hartocollis, A (2010) Failure of state soda tax plan reflects power of an antitax message. New York Times, 2 July. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/03/nyregion/03sodatax.html (accessed July 2017).
28. Giordano, D (2016) Soda-tax supporters aren’t seeing the full picture. The Philadelphia Inquirer, 12 May. http://www.philly.com/philly/columnists/20150512_Giordano__Soda-tax_supporters_aren_t_seeing_the_full_picture.html (accessed May 2016).
29. Peske, HG & Haycock, K (2006) Teaching Inequality: How Poor and Minority Students Are Shortchanged on Teacher Quality: A Report and Recommendations by the Education Trust. Washington, DC: The Education Trust.
30. Fernandez, R & Rogerson, R (1996) Income distribution, communities, and the quality of public education. Q J Econ 111, 135164.
31. Gortmaker, SL, Long, MW, Ward, ZJ et al. (2017) Cost-Effectiveness of a Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Excise Tax in Illinois. Philadelphia, PA: CHOICES Project, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Langellier supplementary material
Appendix

 Word (37 KB)
37 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed