3 Sproston, K, Primatesta, P, eds. Health Survey for England 2003. London: The Stationery Office, 2004.
4 Jonsson, S, Hedblad, B, Engstrom, G, Nilsson, P, Berglund, G, Janzon, L. Influence of obesity on cardiovascular risk. Twenty-three-year follow-up of 22,025 men from an urban Swedish population. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2002; 8: 1046–1053.
5 Okosun, IS, Chandra, KM, Choi, S, Christman, J, Dever, GE, Prewitt, TE. Hypertension and type 2 diabetes co-morbidity in adults in the United States: risk of overall and regional adiposity. Obesity Research 2001; 9: 1–9.
6 Weir, MR. Diabetes and hypertension: blood pressure control and consequences. American Journal of Hypertension 1999; 12: 170S–178S.
7 Huang, Z, Willett, WC, Manson, JE, Rosner, B, Stampfer, MJ, Speizer, FE, et al. Body weight, weight change, and risk for hypertension in women. Annals of Internal Medicine 1998; 128: 81–88.
8 Epstein, M, Sowers, JR. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Hypertension 1992; 19: 403–418.
9 Kopelman, PG. Obesity as a medical problem. Nature 2000; 404: 635–643.
10 Gensini, GF, Comeglio, M, Colella, A. Classical risk factors and emerging elements in the risk profile for coronary artery disease. European Heart Journal 1998; 19 (Suppl. A): A53–61.
11 Garrow, J. Body composition for the investigation of obesity. Basic Life Sciences 1990; 55: 183–190.
12 Stamatelopoulos, KS, Lekakis, JP, Vamvakou, G, Katsichti, P, Protogerou, A, Revela, I, et al. The relative impact of different measures of adiposity on markers of early atherosclerosis. International Journal of Cardiology 2007; 119: 139–146.
13 International Diabetes Federation (IDF). IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome [online], 2006. Available at http://www.idf.org/webdata/docs/IDF. Accessed 10 September 2006.
14 Eckel, RH, Grundy, SM, Zimmet, PZ. The metabolic syndrome. Lancet 2005; 365: 1415–1428.
17 National Institutes of Health (NIH). Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). NIH Publication 01-3670. Bethesda, MD: NIH, 2001.
18 Rossner, S. Obesity: the disease of the twenty-first century. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2002; 26 (Suppl. 4): S2–4.
19 Walker, SP, Rimm, EB, Ascherio, A, Kawachi, I, Stampfer, MJ, Willett, WC. Body size and fat distribution as predictors of stroke among US men. American Journal of Epidemiology 1996; 144: 1143–1150.
20 Molarius, A, Seidell, JC. Selection of anthropometric indicators for classification of abdominal fatness – a critical review. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 1998; 22: 719–727.
21 Sjostrom, L. Obesity and its relationship to other diseases. In: Shetty, PS, McPherson, K, eds. Diet, Nutrition and Chronic Disease: Lessons from Contrasting Worlds. LSHTM Sixth Annual Public Health Forum. London: Wiley, 1996; 235–239.
22 Harris, MM, Stevens, J, Thomas, N, Schreiner, P, Folsom, AR. Associations of fat distribution and obesity with hypertension in a bi-ethnic population: the ARIC study. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Obesity Research 2000; 8: 516–524.
23 Faria, AN, Ribeiro Filho, FF, Gouveia Ferreira, SR, Zanella, MT. Impact of visceral fat on blood pressure and insulin sensitivity in hypertensive obese women. Obesity Research 2002; 10: 1203–1206.
24 Carey, D, Jenkins, AB, Campbell, LV, Freund, J, Chisholm, DJ. Abdominal fat and insulin resistance in normal and overweight women: direct measures reveal a strong relationship in subjects at both low and high risk of NIDDM. Diabetes 1996; 45: 633–638.
25 Kanai, H, Matsuzawa, Y, Kotani, K, Keno, Y, Kobatake, T, Nagai, Y, et al. Close correlation of intra-abdominal fat accumulation to hypertension in obese women. Hypertension 1990; 16: 484–490.
26 Manson, JE, Willett, WC, Stampfer, MJ, Colditz, GA, Hunter, DJ, Hankinson, SE, et al. Body weight and mortality among women. New England Journal of Medicine 1995; 333: 677–685.
27 Siani, A, Cappuccio, FP, Barba, G, Trevisan, M, Farinaro, E, Lacone, R, et al. The relationship of waist circumference to blood pressure: the Olivetti Heart Study. American Journal of Hypertension 2002; 15: 780–786.
32 Pi-Sunyer, FX. Short-term medical benefits and adverse effects of weight loss. Annals of Internal Medicine 1993; 119: 722–726.
33 Huang, Z, Reddy, A. Weight change, ideal weight and hypertension. Current Opinions in Nephrology and Hypertension 1999; 8: 343–346.
34 Staessen, J, Fagard, R, Lijnen, P, Amery, A. Body weight, sodium intake, and blood pressure. Journal of Hypertension 1989; 7 (Suppl.): S19–23.
35 Broom J. Systematic review of the long-term effects and economic consequences of treatments for obesity and implications for health improvement. The Research Findings Register [online], 2004. Available at http://www.ReFeR.nhs.uk/ViewRecord.asp?ID=1274. Accessed 15 July 2006.
36 Hill, JO, Wyatt, HR, Reed, GW, Peters, JC. Obesity and the environment: where do we go from here? Science 2003; 299: 853–855.