Skip to main content Accesibility Help
×
×
Home

Increasing activity and improving nutrition through a schools-based programme: Project Energize. 1. Design, programme, randomisation and evaluation methodology

  • David Graham (a1) (a2), Sarah Appleton (a2), Elaine Rush (a3), Stephanie McLennan (a4), Peter Reed (a1) and David Simmons (a5)...
Abstract

Project Energize is a through-school nutrition and activity programme that is being evaluated in a 2-year, cluster-randomised, longitudinal study. The present paper describes the background of the programme and study, the programme development and delivery, the study methodology including randomisation, measurement and analysis tools and techniques, and the mix of the study population. The programme is being delivered to sixty-two primary schools with sixty-two control schools, each limb containing about 11 000 students. The children in the evaluation cohort are 5 or 10 years old at enrolment; the randomisation protocol has achieved post-consent enrolment of 3000 evaluation participants, who are comparable by age, sex and school decile. End-point measures include body composition and associated physical characteristics, fitness, home and school environment and practice.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Increasing activity and improving nutrition through a schools-based programme: Project Energize. 1. Design, programme, randomisation and evaluation methodology
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Increasing activity and improving nutrition through a schools-based programme: Project Energize. 1. Design, programme, randomisation and evaluation methodology
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Increasing activity and improving nutrition through a schools-based programme: Project Energize. 1. Design, programme, randomisation and evaluation methodology
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Email grahamd@waikatodhb.govt.nz
References
Hide All
1.Ogden, CL, Carroll, MD & Flegal, KM (2003) Epidemiologic trends in overweight and obesity. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 32, 741760.
2.Parnell, W, Soragg, R, Wilson, N, Schaaf, D & Fitzgerald, E (2003) NZ Food NZ Children: Key Results of the 2002 National Children’s Nutrition Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
3.Turnbull, A, Barry, D, Wickens, K & Crane, J (2004) Changes in body mass index in 11–12-year-old children in Hawkes Bay, New Zealand (1989–2000). J Paediatr Child Health 40, 3337.
4.Nelson, N (2005) Influences in Childhood on the Development of Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes in Adulthood. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
5.Rose, D & Bodor, JN (2006) Household food insecurity and overweight status in young school children: results from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Pediatrics 117, 464473.
6.Nesbitt, SD, Ashaye, MO, Stettler, N, Sorof, JM, Goran, MI, Parekh, R & Falkner, BE (2004) Overweight as a risk factor in children: a focus on ethnicity. Ethn Dis 14, 94110.
7.Tyrrell, VJ, Richards, GE, Hofman, P, Gillies, GF, Robinson, E & Cutfield, WS (2001) Obesity in Auckland school children: a comparison of the body mass index and percentage body fat as the diagnostic criterion. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25, 164169.
8.Wilson, P, O'Meara, S, Summerbell, C & Kelly, S (2003) The prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. Qual Saf Health Care 12, 6574.
9.Doyle, R (2006) Sizing up. Sci Am 294 (2), 32.
10.Tomkins, A (2001) Vitamin and mineral nutrition for the health and development of the children of Europe. Public Health Nutr 4, 9199.
11.Winkleby, MA, Feldman, HA & Murray, DM (1997) Joint analysis of three US community intervention trials for reduction of cardiovascular disease risk. J Clin Epidemiol 50, 645658.
12.Porte, D Jr, Seeley, RJ, Woods, SC, Baskin, DG, Figlewicz, DP & Schwartz, MW (1998) Obesity, diabetes and the central nervous system. Diabetologia 41, 863881.
13.Leibel, RL, Rosenbaum, M & Hirsch, J (1995) Changes in energy expenditure resulting from altered body weight. N Engl J Med 332, 621628.
14.Gale, SM, Castracane, VD & Mantzoros, CS (2004) Energy homeostasis, obesity and eating disorders: recent advances in endocrinology. J Nutr 134, 295298.
15.Swinburn, BA, Caterson, I, Seidell, JC & James, WP (2004) Diet, nutrition and the prevention of excess weight gain and obesity. Public Health Nutr 7, 123146.
16.Salmon, J & King, A (2005) Population approaches to increasing physical activity among children and adults. In Obesity Prevention in the 21st Century: Public Health Approaches to Tackle the Obesity Epidemic, pp. 129152. [D Crawford and R Jeffrey, editors]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
17.Novilla, ML, Barnes, MD, De La Cruz, NG, Williams, PN & Rogers, J (2006) Public health perspectives on the family: an ecological approach to promoting health in the family and community. Fam Community Health 29, 2842.
18.Dietz, WH (1994) Critical periods in childhood for the development of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 59, 955959.
19.Cameron, N & Demerath, EW (2002) Critical periods in human growth and their relationship to diseases of aging. Am J Phys AnthropolSuppl. 35, 159184.
20.Power, C & Parsons, T (2000) Nutritional and other influences in childhood as predictors of adult obesity. Proc Nutr Soc 59, 267272.
21.Summerbell, CD, Waters, E, Edmunds, LD, Kelly, S, Brown, T & Campbell, KJ (2005) Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev(3), CD001871.
22.McKenzie, TL, Sallis, JF, Prochaska, JJ, Conway, TL, Marshall, SJ & Rosengard, P (2004) Evaluation of a two-year middle-school physical education intervention: M-SPAN. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36, 13821388.
23.Sallis, J, McKenzie, TL, Alcaraz, JE, Kolody, B, Faucette, N & Hovell, MF (1997) The effects of a 2-year physical education program (SPARK) on physical activity and fitness in elementary school students. Sports, Play and Active Recreation for Kids. Am J Public Health 87, 13281334.
24.Sallis, JF, McKenzie, TL, Kolody, B, Lewis, M, Marshall, S & Rosengard, P (1999) Effects of health-related physical education on academic achievement: project SPARK. Res Q Exerc Sport 70, 127134.
25.Williams, CL, Bollella, MC, Strobino, BA, Spark, A, Nicklas, TA, Tolosi, LB & Pittman, BP (2002) ‘HealthyStart’: outcome of an intervention to promote a heart healthy diet in preschool children. J Am Coll Nutr 21, 6271.
26.Vandongen, R, Jenner, DA, Thompson, C, Taggart, AC, Spickett, EE, Burke, V, Beilin, LJ, Milligan, RA & Dunbar, DL (1995) A controlled evaluation of a fitness and nutrition intervention program on cardiovascular health in 10- to 12-year-old children. Prev Med 24, 922.
27.Burke, V, Thompson, C, Taggart, AC, Spickett, EE, Beilin, LJ, Vandongen, R, Milligan, RA & Dunbar, DL (1996) Differences in response to nutrition and fitness education programmes in relation to baseline levels of cardiovascular risk in 10 to 12-year-old children. J Hum Hypertens 10, Suppl. 3, S99S106.
28.Burke, V, Milligan, RA, Thompson, C, Taggart, AC, Dunbar, DL, Spencer, MJ, Medland, A, Gracey, MP, Vandongen, R & Beilin, LJ (1998) A controlled trial of health promotion programs in 11-year-olds using physical activity ‘enrichment’ for higher risk children. J Pediatr 132, 840848.
29.James, J, Thomas, P, Cavan, D & Kerr, D (2004) Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 328, 1237.
30.Sahota, P, Rudolf, MC, Dixey, R, Hill, AJ, Barth, JH & Cade, J (2001) Randomised controlled trial of primary school based intervention to reduce risk factors for obesity. BMJ 323, 10291034.
31.Yin, Z, Gutin, B, Johnson, MH, Hanes, J Jr, Moore, JB, Cavnar, M, Thornburg, J, Moore, D & Barbeau, P (2005) An environmental approach to obesity prevention in children: Medical College of Georgia FitKid project year 1 results. Obes Res 13, 21532161.
32.Mukoma, W & Flisher, AJ (2004) Evaluations of health promoting schools: a review of nine studies. Health Promot Int 19, 357368.
33.Ministry of Health (2003) Healthy Eating – Healthy Action Oranga Kai – Oranga Pumau: A Strategic Framework. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
34.Craig, E (2005) The Health Status of Children and Young People in the Waikato. Auckland: New Zealand Child and Youth Epidemiology Service.
35.Salmond, C & Crampton, P (2002) NZDep2001 Index of Deprivation. Wellington: Department of Public Health, Wellington Schools of Medicine and Health Sciences.
36. Ministry of Education (2007) Deciles information. http://www.minedu.govt.nz/index.cfm?layout=document&documentid=7693 (accessed July 2007).
37.Cole, TJ, Bellizzi, MC, Flegal, KM & Dietz, WH (2000) Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 320, 12401243.
38.Rush, EC, Puniani, K, Valencia, ME, Davies, PS & Plank, LD (2003) Estimation of body fatness from body mass index and bioelectrical impedance: comparison of New Zealand European, Maori and Pacific Island children. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 13941401.
39.Williams, SM (2005) Weight and height growth rate and the timing of adiposity rebound. Obes Res 13, 11231130.
40.Ogden, CL, Kuczmarski, RJ, Flegal, KM, Mei, Z, Guo, S, Wei, R, GrummerStrawn, LM, Curtin, LR, Roche, AF & Johnson, CL (2002) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts for the United States: improvements to the 1977 National Center for Health Statistics version. Pediatrics 109, 4560.
41.Bohannon, RW (1995) Sit-to-stand test for measuring performance of lower extremity muscles. Percept Mot Skills 80, 163166.
42.MacNaughton, L, Croft, R, Pennicott, J & Long, T (1990) The 5 and 15 minute runs as predictors of aerobic capacity in high school students. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 30, 2428.
43.Asher, M, Keil, U, Anderson, HR et al. (1995) International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC): rationale and methods. Eur Respir J 8, 483491.
44. Statistics New Zealand (2007) The New Zealand Census 2001. http://www.stats.govt.nz/census/default.htm (accessed July 2007).
45.Going, SB, Levin, S, Harrell, J, Stewart, D, Kushi, L, Cornell, CE, Hunsberger, S, Corbin, C & Sallis, J (1999) Physical activity assessment in American Indian schoolchildren in the Pathways study. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 4 Suppl., 788S795S.
46.Carter, M-A & Swinburn, B (2004) Measuring the ‘obesogenic’ food environment in New Zealand primary schools. Health Promot Int 19, 1520.
47.Schuller, AA & Holst, D (2001) Oral status indicators DMFT and FS-T: reflections on index selection. Eur J Oral Sci 109, 155159.
48.St Leger, LH (1999) The opportunities and effectiveness of the health promoting primary school in improving child health – a review of the claims and evidence. Health Educ Res 14, 5169.
49.Lister-Sharp, D, Chapman, S, Stewart-Brown, S & Sowden, A (1999) Health promoting schools and health promotion in schools: two systematic reviews. Health Technol Assess 3, 22, 1207.
50.Ministry of Education (2005) School Leavers Attainment 2004 Data Cubes User Guide. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
51.Hawe, P, Shiell, A & Riley, T (2004) Complex interventions: how ‘out of control’ can a randomised controlled trial be? BMJ 328, 15611563.
52.Wells, JC (2000) A Hattori chart analysis of body mass index in infants and children. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 325329.
53.Cole, TJ (2004) Children grow and horses race: is the adiposity rebound a critical period for later obesity? BMC Pediatr 4, 6.
54.Daniels, JA (1990) Adolescent separation–individuation and family transitions. Adolescence 25, 97, 105116.
55.Hands, B, Parker, H, Glasson, C, Brinkman, S & Read, H (2004) Physical Activity and Nutrition Levels in Western Australian Children and Adolescents: Report. Perth: Western Australian Government.
56.Silva, P & McCann, M (1996) An introduction to the Dunedin study. In From Child to Adult, pp. 123 [P Silva and W Stanton, editors]. Auckland: Oxford University Press.
57.Yin, Z, Hanes, J Jr, Moore, JB, Humbles, P, Barbeau, P & Gutin, B (2005) An after-school physical activity program for obesity prevention in children: the Medical College of Georgia FitKid Project. Eval Health Prof 28, 6789.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed