1Hallberg, L.Results of surveys to assess iron status in Europe. Nutr. Rev. 1995; 11: 314–322.
2Hercberg, S, Galan, P, Dupin, H. Recent knowledge on iron and folate deficiency in the world. Paris: INSERM, 1990; 197: 700.
3Hallberg, L, Hultén, L, Bengtsson, C, Lapidus, L, Lindstedt, G.Iron balance in menstruating women. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1995; 49: 200–207.
4Fogelholm, M, Alopaeus, K, Silvennoinen, T, Teirilä, J.Factors affecting iron status in non-preganant wome from urban South Finland. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1993; 47: 567–574.
5Van de Vijver, LPL, Kardinaal, AFM, Charzewska, J, Rotily, M, Charles, P, Maggiolini, M, Ando, S, Väänänen, K, Wajszczyk, B, Heikkinen, J, Deloraine, A, Schaafsma, G.Calcium intake is weakly but consistently negatively associated with iron status in girls and women in six European countries. J. Nutr. 1999; 129: 963–968.
6Strain, JJ, Barker, ME, Livingstone, MBE, Mc Kenna, PG. The Northern Ireland dietary surveys and related studies. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 1990; 49: 289–296.
7Brussaard, JH, Brants, HA, Bouman, M, Löwik, MRH. Iron intake and iron status among adults in the Netherlands. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1997; 51: S52–S58.
8Galan, P, Hercberg, S, Soustre, Y.Factors affecting iron stores in French females. Human Nutr. Clin. Nutr. 1985; 39C: 279–287.
9Soustre, Y, Dop, MC, Galan, P, Hercberg, S.Dietary determinants of the iron status in menstruating women. Int. J. Vit. Nutr. Res. 1986; 56: 281–286.
10Preziosi, P, Hercberg, S, Galan, P, Devanlay, M, Cherouvrier, F, Dupin, H.Iron status of a healthy French population: factors determining biochemical markers. Ann. Nutr. Met. 1994; 38: 192–202.
11Galan, P, Yoon, HC, Preziosi, P, Viteri, F, Valeix, P, Fieux, B, Briancon, S, Malvy, D, Roussel, AM, Favier, A, Hercberg, S.Determining factors in the iron status of adult women in the SU.VI.MAX study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1998; 52: 383–388.
12Knottnerus, JA, Delgado, LR, knipschild, PG, Essed, GG, Smits, F, Haematologic parameters and pregnancy outcome. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 1990; 43: 461–466.
13Robinson, S, Godfrey, K, Denne, J, Cox, V.The determinants of iron status in early pregnancy. Br. J. Nutr. 1998; 79: 249–255.
14Milman, N, Agger, AO, Nielsen, OJ. Iron supplementation during pregnancy: effect on iron status markers, serum erythropoietin and human placental lactogen: a placebo controlled study in 207 Danish women. Danish Med. Bull. 1991; 38: 471–476.
15Hercberg, S, Galan, P, Soustre, Y, Dop, MC, Devanlay, M, Dupin, H.Prevalence of iron deficiency during pregnancy in a French area. Nutr. Rep. Int. 1985; 32: 719–726.
16Hercberg, S, Bichon, L, Galan, P, Christides, JP, Carroget, C, Potier de Courcy, G.Iron and folacin status of pregnant women: relationship with dietary intakes. Nutr. Rep. Int. 1987; 56: 915–930.
17De Benazé, C, Galan, P, Wainer, R, Hercberg, S.Prévention de l'anemie ferriprive au cours de la grossesse par une supplémentation martiale précoce: un essai controlé. Rev. Epidemiol. Santé Publique. 1989; 27: 109–119.
18Michaelsen, KF, Milman, N, Samuelson, G.A longitudinal study of iron status in healthy Danish infants: effects of early iron status, growth velocity and dietary factors. Acta. Pediatr. Scand. 1995; 84: 1035–1044.
19Macchia, P, Frijia, F, Mariani, F, Del Bravo, M, Protti, MA, Mariani, G, Bottone, E. Incidence of iron deficiency in an Italian area. In: Larisse, M, Tura, S, Ceccarelli, G, Ciampini, M eds. Le Sideropenie e il ruolo fisioterapeutico della ferritina. Roma: Antonio Delfino Editore, 1985: 23–37.
20Colomer Revuelta, C, Donat Colomer, J, Fernandez-Delgado, R, Guitierrez Sogler, D, Colomeret Revuelta, J, Colomer Sala, C.La carencia de hierro en ninos de seia a deciocho meses de edad. Rev. Esp. Pediatr. 1985; 41: 273–277.
21Hercberg, S, Papoz, L, Galan, P, Guéry, MF, Farnier, MA, Rossignol, C.Iron status and dietary pattern in young children. Nutr. Rep. Int. 1986; 35: 307–316.
22Armstrong, P.Iron deficiency in adolescents. BMJ 1989; 298: 499.
23Doyle, W, Jenkins, S, Crawford, MA, Puvandendran, K.Nutritional status of school children in an inner city area. Arch. Dis. Child 1994; 70: 376–381.
24Southon, S, Wright, AJA, Finglas, PM, Bailey, AL, Belsten, JL. Micronutrient intake and psychological performance of schoolchildren: consideration of the value of calculated nutrient intake for the assessment of micronutrient status in children. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 1992; 51: 315–324.
25Bergström, E, Hernell, O, Lonnerdal, B, Persson, LA. Sex differences in iron stores of adolescents: what is normal. J. Ped. Gastro. Nutr. 1995; 20: 215–224.
26Samuelson, G, Bratteby, L-E, Berggren, K, Elverby, J-E, Kempe, B.Dietary iron intake and iron status in adolescents. Acta. Paediatr. 1996; 85: 1033–1038.
27Milman, N.Serum ferritin in Danes: Studies of iron status from infancy to old age, during blood donation and pregnancy. Int. J. Hematol. 1996; 63: 103–135.
28Nelson, M, White, J, Rhodes, C.Haemoglobin, ferritin, and iron intakes in British children aged 12–14 years: a preliminary investigation. Br. J. Nutr. 1993; 70: 147–155.
29Donovan, UM, Gibson, RS. Iron and zinc status of young women aged 14 to 19 years consuming vegetarian and omnivorous diets. J. Am. coll. Nutr. 1995; 14: 463–472.
30Alexander, D, Ball, MJ, Mann, J.Nutrient intake and haematological status of vegetarians and age-sex matched omnivores. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 1994; 48: 538–546.
31Hallberg, L, Asp, NG. Iron nutrition in health and disease. London: John Libbey, 1996: 364.
32Rowland, TW, Deisroth, MB, Green, GM, Kelleher, JF. The effect of iron therapy on the exercise capacity of nonanemic iron-deficient adolescent runners. Am. J. Dis. Child 1988; 142: 165–169.
33Ballin, A, Berar, M, Rubinstein, U, Kleter, Y, Hershkovitz, A, Meytes, D.Iron state in female adolescents. Am. J. Dis. Child 1992; 146: 803–805.
34Bruner, AB, Joffe, A, Duggan, AK, Casella, JF, Brandt, J.Randomised study of cognitive effects of iron supplementation in non-anemic iron-deficient adolsecent girls. Lancet 1996; 348: 992–996.
35Zhu, YI, Haas, JD. Iron depletion without anemia and physical performance in young women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1997; 66: 334–341.
36Allen, LH. Pregnancy and iron deficiency: unresolved issues. Nutr. Rev. 1997; 55: 91–101.
37Viteri, FE. The consequences of iron deficiency and anemia in pregnancy. In: Allen, L, King, J, Lönnerdal, B, eds. Nutrient Regulation during Pregnancy, Lactation and Infant Growh. New York: Plenum Press, 1994: 127–139.
38De Maeyer, E, Adiels-Tegman, M.The prevalence of anaemia in the world. World Health Stat. Q 1985; 38: 302–316.
39Scholl, TO, Hediger, ML, Fisher, RL, Shearer, JW. Anemia vs iron deficiency: increased risk of preterm delivery in a prospective study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1992; 55: 985–988.
40Hallberg, L, Bengtsson, C, Garby, L.An analysis of factors leading to a reduction in iron deficiency in Swedish women. Bull. WHO 1979; 57: 147–954.
41Takkunen, H.Iron deficiency in the Finnish adult population. Scand J. Haematol (Suppl) 1976; 25: 1–87.
42Hallberg, L, Högdahl, AM, Nilsson, L, Rybo, G.Menstrual blood loss – a population study. Variation at different ages and attempts to define normality. Acta. Obstet. Gynecol Scand 1966; 45: 320–351.
43Cole, SK, Billewicz, WZ, Thomson, AM. Sources of variation in menstrual blood loss. J. Obst. Gynaecol Br. Commonw. 1971; 78: 933–939.
44Milman, N, Kirchhoff, M, Jogersen, T.Iron stores markers, serum ferritin and haemoglobin in 1359 Danish women in relation to menstruation, hormonal contraception, parity, and postmenopausal hormone treatment. Am. Hematol. 1992; 65: 96–102.
45Milman, N, Rosdahl, N, Lyhne, N, Jogersen, T.Iron status in 883 Danish women aged 35–65 years. Relation to menstruation and method for contraception. Acta. Obst. Gynecol. Scand 1993; 72: 601–605.
46Bothwell, TH, Charlton, RW. A general approach to the problem of iron deficiency and iron overload in the population at large. Sem. Hematol. 1982; 19: 54–57.
47Monsen, ER, Balintly, JL. Calculating dietary iron bioavailability: refinement of computarization. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 1978; 80: 307–311.
48Murphy, SP, Beaton, GH, Calloway, DH. Estimated mineral intakes of toodlers: predicted prevalence of inadequacy in village populations in Egypt, Kenya, and Mexico. J. Clin. Nutr. 1992; 56; 565–572.
49Tseng, M, Chakraborty, H, Robinson, DT, Mendez, M, Kohlmeier, L.Adjustment of iron intake for dietary enhancers and inhibitors in population studies: bioavailable iron in rural and urban residing russian women and children. J. Nutr. 1997; 127: 1456–1468.
50Hallberg, L, Hulthen, L.Prediction of dietary iron absorption. An algorithm to calculate absorption and bioavailability of dietary iron. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2000; 71: 1147–1160.
51Lonnerdal, B.Effects of milk and milk components on calcium, magnesium, and trace element absorption during infancy. Physiol. Rev. 1997; 77: 643–669.
52Pisacane, A, De Vizia, B, Valiante, A, Vaccaro, F, Russo, M, Grillo, G, Giustardi, A.Iron status in breast-fed infants. J. Pediatr. 1995; 127: 429–431.
53Dewey, KG, Cohen, RJ, Brown, KH, Rivera, LL. Age of introduction of complementary foods and growth of term, low-birth-weight, breast-fed infants: a randomized intervention study in Honduras. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1999; 69: 679–686.
54WHO (1999) Infant and young child feeding in the WHO European Region – Guidelines with emphasis on the former Soviet Union. WHO, Copenhagen (in preparation).
55Milman, N, Agger, AO, Nielsen, OJ. Iron status markers and serum erythropoietin in 120 mothers and newborn infants: effect of iron supplementation in normal pregnancy. Acta. Obstet. Gynecol. Scand 1994; 73: 200–204.
56Hemminki, E, Rimpela, U.A randomized comparison of routine versus selective iron supplementation during pregnancy. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 1991; 10: 3–10.
57Hurell, R.Fortification. Nutrition Rev. 1997; 55: 210–222.