1.Heiss G, Johnson NJ, Reiland S, Davis CE & Tyroler HA (1980) The epidemiology of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study. Summary. Circulation 62, IV116–IV136.
2.Schaefer EJ (2002) Lipoproteins, nutrition, and heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 191–212.
3.Thom T, Haase N, Rosamond W et al. (2006) Heart disease and stroke statistics – 2006 update: a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation 113, e85–e151.
4.Hall G, Collins A, Csemiczky G & Landgren BM (2002) Lipoproteins and BMI: a comparison between women during transition to menopause and regularly menstruating healthy women. Maturitas 41, 177–185.
5.Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Fernandez-Garcia J, Sanchez-Izquierdo F, Lardelli-Claret P, Jimenez MJ & Galvez-Vargas R (1998) Lifestyle factors associated with changes in serum lipids in a follow-up study of cardiovascular risk factors. Eur J Epidemiol 14, 525–533.
6.Twisk JW, Kemper HC, Mellenbergh GJ, van Mechelen W & Post GB (1996) Relation between the longitudinal development of lipoprotein levels and lifestyle parameters during adolescence and young adulthood. Ann Epidemiol 6, 246–256.
7.Young DR, Haskell WL, Jatulis DE & Fortmann SP (1993) Associations between changes in physical activity and risk factors for coronary heart disease in a community-based sample of men and women: the Stanford Five-City Project. Am J Epidemiol 138, 205–216.
8.Schubert CM, Rogers NL, Remsberg KE, Sun SS, Chumlea WC, Demerath EW, Czerwinski SA, Towne B & Siervogel RM (2006) Lipids, lipoproteins, lifestyle, adiposity and fat-free mass during middle age: the Fels Longitudinal Study. Int J Obes (Lond) 30, 251–260.
9.Shakir YA, Samsioe G, Nyberg P, Lidfeldt J & Nerbrand C (2006) Does the hormonal situation modify lipid effects by lifestyle factors in middle-aged women? Results from a population-based study of Swedish women: the women’s health in the Lund area study. Metabolism 55, 1060–1066.
10.Arquer A, Elosua R, Covas MI, Molina L & Marrugat J (2006) Amount and intensity of physical activity, fitness, and serum lipids in pre-menopausal women. Int J Sports Med 27, 911–918.
11.Ashton WD, Nanchahal K & Wood DA (2000) Leisure-time physical activity and coronary risk factors in women. J Cardiovasc Risk 7, 259–266.
12.Durstine JL, Grandjean PW, Cox CA & Thompson PD (2002) Lipids, lipoproteins, and exercise. J Cardiopulm Rehabil 22, 385–398.
13.Hardman AE (1999) Interaction of physical activity and diet: implications for lipoprotein metabolism. Public Health Nutr 2, 369–376.
14.Kraus WE, Houmard JA, Duscha BD et al. (2002) Effects of the amount and intensity of exercise on plasma lipoproteins. N Engl J Med 347, 1483–1492.
15.Lakka TA & Salonen JT (1992) Physical activity and serum lipids: a cross-sectional population study in eastern Finnish men. Am J Epidemiol 136, 806–818.
16.Ma J, Liu Z & Ling W (2003) Physical activity, diet and cardiovascular disease risks in Chinese women. Public Health Nutr 6, 139–146.
17.Marrugat J, Elosua R, Covas MI, Molina L & Rubies-Prat J (1996) Amount and intensity of physical activity, physical fitness, and serum lipids in men. The MARATHOM Investigators. Am J Epidemiol 143, 562–569.
18.Marti B, Suter E, Riesen WF, Tschopp A, Wanner HU & Gutzwiller F (1980) Effects of long-term, self-monitored exercise on the serum lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profile in middle-aged men. Atherosclerosis 81, 19–31.
19.Wei M, Macera CA, Hornung CA & Blair SN (1997) Changes in lipids associated with change in regular exercise in free-living men. J Clin Epidemiol 50, 1137–1142.
20.Kelley GA, Kelley KS & Tran ZV (2004) Aerobic exercise and lipids and lipoproteins in women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Womens Health 13, 1148–1164.
21.Pescatello LS, Murphy D & Costanzo D (2000) Low-intensity physical activity benefits blood lipids and lipoproteins in older adults living at home. Age Ageing 29, 433–439.
22.Bijnen FC, Feskens EJ, Caspersen CJ, Giampaoli S, Nissinen AM, Menotti A, Mosterd WL & Kromhout D (1996) Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors among elderly men in Finland, Italy, and the Netherlands. Am J Epidemiol 143, 553–561.
23.Fung TT, Hu FB, Yu J, Chu NF, Spiegelman D, Tofler GH, Willett WC & Rimm EB (2000) Leisure-time physical activity, television watching, and plasma biomarkers of obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. Am J Epidemiol 152, 1171–1178.
24.Kokkinos PF & Fernhall B (1999) Physical activity and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels: what is the relationship? Sports Med 28, 307–314.
25.Leon AS & Sanchez OA (2001) Response of blood lipids to exercise training alone or combined with dietary intervention. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33, S502–S515.
26.Sunami Y, Motoyama M, Kinoshita F, Mizooka Y, Sueta K, Matsunaga A, Sasaki J, Tanaka H & Shindo M (1999) Effects of low-intensity aerobic training on the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in healthy elderly subjects. Metabolism 48, 984–988.
27.Kodama S, Tanaka S, Saito K et al. (2007) Effect of aerobic exercise training on serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 167, 999–1008.
28.Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Chrysohoou C, Skoumas J, Zeimbekis A, Papaioannou I & Stefanadis C (2003) Effect of leisure time physical activity on blood lipid levels: the ATTICA study. Coron Artery Dis 14, 533–539.
29.Fransson EI, Alfredsson LS, de Faire UH, Knutsson A & Westerholm PJ (2003) Leisure time, occupational and household physical activity, and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in working men and women: the WOLF study. Scand J Public Health 31, 324–333.
30.Barengo NC, Kastarinen M, Lakka T, Nissinen A & Tuomilehto J (2006) Different forms of physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors among 24–64-year-old men and women in Finland. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 13, 51–59.
31.Lippi G, Schena F, Salvagno GL, Montagnana M, Ballestrieri F & Guidi GC (2006) Comparison of the lipid profile and lipoprotein(a) between sedentary and highly trained subjects. Clin Chem Lab Med 44, 322–326.
32.Kobayashi J, Murase Y, Asano A, Nohara A, Kawashiri MA, Inazu A, Yamagishi M & Mabuchi H (2006) Effect of walking with a pedometer on serum lipid and adiponectin levels in Japanese middle-aged men. J Atheroscler Thromb 13, 197–201.
33.Durstine JL, Grandjean PW, Davis PG, Ferguson MA, Alderson NL & DuBose KD (2001) Blood lipid and lipoprotein adaptations to exercise: a quantitative analysis. Sports Med 31, 1033–1062.
34.Danielson ME, Cauley JA & Rohay JM (1993) Physical activity and its association with plasma lipids and lipoproteins in elderly women. Ann Epidemiol 3, 351–357.
35.Fonong T, Toth MJ, Ades PA, Katzel LI, Calles-Escandon J & Poehlman ET (1996) Relationship between physical activity and HDL-cholesterol in healthy older men and women: a cross-sectional and exercise intervention study. Atherosclerosis 127, 177–183.
36.Ring-Dimitriou S, von Duvillard SP, Paulweber B, Stadlmann M, Lemura LM, Peak K & Mueller E (2007) Nine months aerobic fitness induced changes on blood lipids and lipoproteins in untrained subjects versus controls. Eur J Appl Physiol 99, 291–299.
37.Kelley GA, Kelley KS & Tran ZV (2004) Walking, lipids, and lipoproteins: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Prev Med 38, 651–661.
38. Matton L, Wijndaele K, Duvigneaud N, Duquet W, Philippaerts RM, Thomis M & Lefevre J (2007) Reliability and validity of the Flemish Physical Activity Computerized Questionnaire (FPACQ) in adults. Res Q Exerc Sport (In the Press).
39.Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Whitt MC et al. (2000) Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32, S498–S516.
40.Skoumas J, Pitsavos C, Panagiotakos DB, Chrysohoou C, Zeimbekis A, Papaioannou I, Toutouza M, Toutouzas P & Stefanadis C (2003) Physical activity, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and other lipids levels, in men and women from the ATTICA study. Lipids Health Dis 2, 3.
41.Weller I & Corey P (1998) The impact of excluding non-leisure energy expenditure on the relation between physical activity and mortality in women. Epidemiology 9, 632–635.
42.O’Connor GT, Hennekens CH, Willett WC, Goldhaber SZ, JrPaffenbarger RS , Breslow JL, Lee IM & Buring JE (1995) Physical exercise and reduced risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction. Am J Epidemiol 142, 1147–1156.
43.Ainslie PN, Reilly T, Maclaren DP & Campbell IT (2005) Changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins following 10-days of prolonged walking: influence of age and relationship to physical activity level. Ergonomics 48, 1352–1364.
44.Manson JE, Hu FB, Rich-Edwards JW, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Speizer FE & Hennekens CH (1999) A prospective study of walking as compared with vigorous exercise in the prevention of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med 341, 650–658.
45.Williams PT (2004) The relationships of vigorous exercise, alcohol, and adiposity to low and high high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Metabolism 53, 700–709.
46.Mora S, Lee IM, Buring JE & Ridker PM (2006) Association of physical activity and body mass index with novel and traditional cardiovascular biomarkers in women. JAMA 295, 1412–1419.