Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Maternal cured meat consumption during pregnancy and risk of paediatric brain tumour in offspring: potentially harmful levels of intake

  • Janice M Pogoda (a1) and Susan Preston-Martin (a2)
Abstract
Objective

To describe the relationship between specific levels of nitrite intake from cured meat consumption during pregnancy and the relative risk of paediatric brain tumours in the offspring.

Design

Exposure data were previously collected for a population-based case–control study of paediatric brain tumours; data on nitrite content were obtained by a comprehensive literature review of surveys of residual nitrite content in cured meats published in the USA and Canada. The level of nitrite intake for each mother was predicted by year of pregnancy based on survey results. Dose–response was evaluated both categorically and continuously using polynomial and quadratic spline regression.

Setting

The US west coast: Los Angeles County, the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Area and the Seattle–Puget Sound area.

Subjects

There were 540 cases diagnosed between 1984 and 1990 at ages varying from 0 to 19 years, and 801 controls frequency-matched by geographic area, age and birth year.

Results

In general, survey results suggest a trend of decreasing nitrite levels in cured meats over time. We observed a moderate increase in brain tumour risk in the offspring of mothers with relatively low levels of nitrite consumption from cured meats during pregnancy, and a two- to three-fold risk increase in offspring of mothers who consumed 3 mg day−1 nitrite from cured meats (about 125 g day−1 of cured meat consumption throughout the pregnancy).

Conclusions

A substantial risk of paediatric brain tumour appears to be associated with relatively high levels of maternal cured meat consumption during pregnancy. A more scientifically valid approach than a literature review to estimate nitrite intake from cured meats and data from a large group of highly exposed subjects would be useful in determining potentially harmful levels.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Maternal cured meat consumption during pregnancy and risk of paediatric brain tumour in offspring: potentially harmful levels of intake
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Maternal cured meat consumption during pregnancy and risk of paediatric brain tumour in offspring: potentially harmful levels of intake
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Maternal cured meat consumption during pregnancy and risk of paediatric brain tumour in offspring: potentially harmful levels of intake
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email jpogoda@statology.com
References
Hide All
1Lijinsky, W, Epstein, SS. Nitrosamines as environmental carcinogens. Nature 1970; 225: 21–3.
2National Research Council. The Health Effects of Nitrate, Nitrite, and N-Nitroso Compounds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1981.
3Preston-Martin, S, Pogoda, JM, Mueller, BA, Holly, EA, Lijinsky, W, Davis, RL. Maternal consumption of cured meats and vitamins in relation to paediatric brain tumours. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 1996; 5: 599605.
4Ishida, Y, Tamura, M, Kanda, H, Okamoto, K.Histopathological studies of the nervous system tumours in rats induced by. N-nitrosomethyl-urea. Acta Pathol. Jpn. 1975; 25: 385401.
5Koestner, A, Derlinger, RH, Wechsler, W.Induction of neurogenic and lymphoid neoplasms by the feeding of threshold levels of methyl- and ethylnitrosourea precursors to adult rats. Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 1975; 13: 605–9.
6Ivankovic, S. Prenatal carcinogenesis. In: Nakahara, W, Takayama, S, Sugimura, T, Odashima, S, eds. Topics in Chemical Carcinogenesis. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1972: 463–72.
7Rice, J, Ward, J. Age dependence of susceptibility to carcinogenesis in the nervous system. In: Selikoff, I, Hammond, E, eds. Brain Tumours in the Chemical Industry. New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1982: 274–89.
8Buege, DR, Lee, MH, Cassens, RG. Residual Nitrite Levels in Meat Products Manufactured by Wisconsin Meat Processors. Report No. A2983. Madison, WI: Research Division of the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Wisconsin, 1972 (available from Agricultural Bulletin Building, Madison, Wisconsin).
9Greenberg, RA. Nitrosopyrrolidine in United States cured meat products. In: Tinbergen, BJ, Krol, B, eds. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Nitrite in Meat Products, 7–10 September 1976. Zeist, the Netherlands: Center for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, 1977: 203–10.
10Ceres Forum. Nitrite as a Food Additive: State of the Science. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Center for Food and Nutrition Policy, 1997.
11Hartge, P, Brinton, LA, Rosenthal, JF, Cahill, JI, Hoover, RN, Waksberg, J.Random digit dialing in selecting a population-based control group. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1984; 120: 825–33.
12Howe, GR, Harrison, L, Jain, M.A short diet history for assessing dietary exposure to N-nitrosamines in epidemiologic studies. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1986; 124: 595602.
13Panalaks, T, Iyengar, JR, Sen, NP. Nitrate, nitrite, and dimethylnitrosamine in cured meat products. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 1973; 56: 621–5.
14Panalaks, T, Iyengar, JR, Donaldson, BA, Miles, WF, Sen, NP. Further survey of cured meat products for volatile N-nitrosamines. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 1974; 57: 806–12.
15Sen, NP, Iyengar, JR, Donaldson, BA, Panalaks, T.Effect of sodium nitrite concentration on the formation of nitrosopyrrolidine and dimethylnitrosamine in fried bacon. J. Agric. Food. Chem. 1974; 22: 540–1.
16Sen, NP, Donaldson, B, Seaman, S, Collins, B, Iyengar, JR. Recent nitrosamine analyses in cooked bacon. J. Inst. Can. Sci. Technol. Ailment. 1977; 10: A13–14.
17Theiler, RF, Aspelund, TG, Sato, K, Miller, AF. Model system studies on N-nitrosamine formation in cured meats: the effect of slice thickness. J. Food Sci. 1981; 46: 691–3.
18Pensabene, JW, Feinberg, JI, Dooley, CJ, Phillips, JG, Fiddler, W.Effect of pork belly composition and nitrite level on nitrosamine formation in fried bacon. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1979; 27: 842–5.
19Pensabene, JW, Fiddler, W, Miller, AJ, Phillips, JG. Effect of preprocessing procedures for green bellies on N-nitrosopyrrolidine formation in bacon. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1980; 28: 966–70.
20Pensabene, JW, Fiddler, W.N-nitrosothiazolidine in cured meat products. J. Food Sci. 1983; 48: 1870–1.
21Pensabene, JW, Fiddler, W.Determination of volatile N-nitrosamines in frankfurters containing minced fish and surimi. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 1988; 71: 839–43.
22Pensabene, JW, Fiddler, W, Gates, RA, Hale, M, Jahncke, M, Gooch, J.N-nitrosothiazolidine and its 4-carboxylic acid in frankfurters containing Alaska pollock. J. Food Sci. 1991; 56: 1108–10.
23Fiddler, W, Pensabene, JW, Gates, RA, Foster, JM, Smith, WJ. Investigations on N-nitrosopyrrolidine in dry-cured bacon. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 1989; 72: 1922.
24Wasserman, AE, Fiddler, W, Doerr, RC, Osman, SF, Dooley, CJ. Dimethylnitrosamine in frankfurters. Food Cosmet. Toxic. 1972; 10: 681–4.
25Nitrite Safety Council. A survey of nitrosamines in sausages and dry-cured meat products. Food Technol. 1980; 34: 4551, 53, 103.
26Fiddler, W, Doerr, RC, Gates, RA, Fox, JB. Comparison of chemiluminescent and AOAC methods for determining nitrite in commercial cured meat products. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 1984; 67: 525–8.
27Gates, RA, Pensabene, JW, Fiddler, W.Comparison of three methods for determination of N-nitrosopyrrolidine in fried dry-cured bacon. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 1984; 67: 236–9.
28Binkerd, EF, Kolari, OE. The history and use of nitrate and nitrite in the curing of meat. Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 1975; 13: 655–61.
29Pensabene, JW, Fiddler, W, Gates, RA, Fagan, JC, Wasserman, AE. Effect of frying and other cooking conditions on nitrosopyrrolidine formation in bacon. J. Food Sci. 1974; 39: 314–16.
30Fiddler, W, Feinberg, JI, Pensabene, JW, Williams, AC, Dooley, CJ. Dimethylnitrosamine in souse and similar jellied cured-meat products. Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 1975; 13: 653–4.
31United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Quality Service. Study to Survey Nitrosamine Levels in Dry Cured Bacon, Hams, and Shoulders. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture, 1980.
32United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Quality Service. Study of Nitrosamine Levels in Immersion Cured Bacon. Washington DC: United States Department of Agriculture, 1980.
33Greenland, S.Dose–response and trend analysis in epidemiology: alternatives to categorical analysis. Epidemiology 1995; 6: 356–65.
34 United States Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Service Nutrient Data Laboratory (Online). Available: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/cgi-bin/nut_search.pl (2000, 15 Feb).
35Preston-Martin, S, Yu, M, Benton, B, Henderson, BE. N-nitroso compounds and childhood brain tumours: a case–control study. Cancer Res. 1982; 42: 5240–5.
36Kuijten, RR, Bunin, GR, Nass, CC, Meadows, AT. Gestational and familial risk factors for childhood astrocytoma: results of a case–control study. Cancer Res. 1990; 50: 2608–12.
37Sarasua, S, Savitz, DA. Cured and broiled meat consumption in relation to childhood cancer: Denver, Colorado (United States). Cancer Causes Control 1994; 5: 141–8.
38Bunin, GR, Kuijten, RR, Boesel, CP, Buckley, JD, Meadows, AT. Maternal diet and risk of astrocytic glioma in children: a report from the Childrens Cancer Group (United States and Canada). Cancer Causes Control 1994; 5: 177–87.
39Nordin, HR. The depletion of added sodium nitrite in ham. Can. Inst. Food Sci. Technol. J. 1969; 2: 7985.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed