Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Maternal dietary patterns and associated nutrient intakes during each trimester of pregnancy

  • Ciara A McGowan (a1) and Fionnuala M McAuliffe (a1)

Abstract

Objective

To determine the main dietary patterns of pregnant women during each of the three trimesters of pregnancy and to examine associated nutrient intakes.

Design

Participants completed a 3 d food diary during each trimester of pregnancy. Thirty-six food groups were created and dietary patterns were derived using k-means cluster analysis.

Setting

National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Subjects

Two hundred and eighty-five healthy pregnant women aged between 20 and 41 years.

Results

Two dietary patterns were identified at each time point. They were labelled ‘Unhealthy’ (n 143, 150 and 155 at trimester 1, 2 and 3, respectively) and ‘Health Conscious’ (n 142, 135 and 130 at trimester 1, 2 and 3, respectively). Women in the ‘Health Conscious’ cluster were significantly older, had lower BMI and were higher educated than those in the ‘Unhealthy’ cluster. Of those in the ‘Unhealthy’ cluster in the first trimester (n 143), 103 (72·0 %) continued in this dietary pattern into trimester 2 and eighty-one (56·6 %) continued into trimester 3. Of those in the ‘Health Conscious’ cluster in trimester 1 (n 142), ninety-five (66·9 %) continued in this dietary pattern into trimester 2 and sixty-nine (48·6 %) continued into trimester 3.

Conclusions

Cluster analysis produced two clearly defined dietary patterns at each stage of pregnancy. Knowledge of maternal dietary patterns is important for the development of pregnancy-specific dietary guidelines. Identifying women with an ‘Unhealthy’ dietary pattern in early pregnancy affords the opportunity for a dietary intervention which may positively impact both maternal and infant health.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Maternal dietary patterns and associated nutrient intakes during each trimester of pregnancy
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Maternal dietary patterns and associated nutrient intakes during each trimester of pregnancy
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Maternal dietary patterns and associated nutrient intakes during each trimester of pregnancy
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email cmcgowa@gmail.com

References

Hide All
1.Barker, DJ (1997) Maternal nutrition, fetal nutrition, and disease in later life. Nutrition 13, 807813.
2.Hanley, B, Dijane, J, Fewtrell, Met al. (2010) Metabolic imprinting, programming and epigenetics – a review of present priorities and future opportunities. Br J Nutr 104, Suppl. 1, S1S25.
3.Jacques, PF & Tucker, KL (2001) Are dietary patterns useful for understanding the role of diet in chronic disease? Am J Clin Nutr 73, 12.
4.Appel, LJ, Moore, TJ, Obarzanek, Eet al. (1997) A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 336, 11171124.
5.Newby, PK & Tucker, KL (2004) Empirically derived eating patterns using factor or cluster analysis: a review. Nutr Rev 63, 177203.
6.Hearty, AP & Gibney, MJ (2009) Comparison of cluster and principal components analysis techniques to derive dietary patterns in Irish Adults. Br J Nutr 101, 598608.
7.Cetin, I, Berti, C & Calabrese, S (2010) Role of micronutrients in the periconceptional period. Human Reprod Update 16, 8095.
8.Allen, LH (2005) Multiple micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation: an overview. Am J Clin Nutr 81, issue 5, 1206S1212S.
9.World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2002) Report of the Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. Geneva: WHO.
10.Institute of Medicine, Committee on Nutrition Status during Pregnancy and Lactation (1990) Nutrition During Pregnancy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
11.Committee on Obstetric Practice (2002) ACOG committee opinion. Exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Number 267, January 2002. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Int J Gynecol Obstet 77, 7981.
12.Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2006) Exercise in Pregnancy (RCOG Statement 4). http://www.rcog.org.uk/womens-health/clinicalguidance/exercise-pregnancy (accessed November 2011).
13.Food Standards Agency (2006) Food Portion Sizes, 3rd ed. [H Crawley, editor]. London: TSO.
14.Tinuviel Software (2003) WISP Users Manual. Version 3.0. Intake, Recipe and Menu Nutritional Analysis System. Warrington: Tinuviel Software.
15.Food Standards Agency (2002) McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, 6th summary ed. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.
16.Food Safety Authority of Ireland (1999) Recommended Dietary Allowances for Ireland. Dublin: Food Safety Authority of Ireland.
17.Eurodiet (2000) Nutrition and Diet for Healthy Lifestyles in Europe. Science and Policy Implications. http://ec.europa.eu/health/archive/ph_determinants/life_style/nutrition/report01_en.pdf (accessed October 2011).
18.Irish Heart Foundation (2007) Nutrition Guidelines for Heart Health. With Policy Recommendations. May 2007. Dublin: Irish Heart Foundation.
19.Northstone, K, Emmett, PM & Rogers, I (2008) Dietary patterns in pregnancy and associations with nutrient intakes. Br J Nutr 99, 406415.
20.Northstone, K, Emmett, P & Rogers, I (2008) Dietary patterns in pregnancy and associations with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 471479.
21.Arkkola, T, Uusitalo, U, Kronberg-Kippila, Cet al. (2008) Seven distinct dietary patterns identified among pregnant Finnish women – associations with nutrient intake and sociodemographic factors. Public Health Nutr 11, 176182.
22.Okubo, H, Miyake, Y, Sasaki, Set al. (2010) Nutritional adequacy of three dietary patterns defined by cluster analysis in 997 pregnant Japanese women: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study. Public Health Nutr 14, 611621.
23.Crozier, SR, Robinson, SM, Borland, SEet al. (2006) Dietary patterns in the Southampton Women's Survey. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 13911399.
24.McGowan, CA, Byrne, J, Walsh, Jet al. (2011) Insufficient vitamin D intakes among pregnant women. Eur J Clin Nutr 65, 10761078.
25.Cuco, G, Fernandez-Ballart, J, Sala, Jet al. (2006) Dietary patterns and associated lifestyle in preconception, pregnancy and postpartum. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 364371.
26.Villegas, R, Salim, A, Collins, MMet al. (2004) Dietary patterns in middle-aged Irish men and women defined by cluster analysis. Public Health Nutr 7, 10171024.
27.Rutishauser, IHE (2005) Dietary intake measurements. Public Health Nutr 8, 11001107.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed