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Mediterranean diet pyramid today. Science and cultural updates

  • Anna Bach-Faig (a1), Elliot M Berry (a2), Denis Lairon (a3), Joan Reguant (a1), Antonia Trichopoulou (a4), Sandro Dernini (a5) (a6), F Xavier Medina (a7), Maurizio Battino (a8), Rekia Belahsen (a9), Gemma Miranda (a1) and Lluís Serra-Majem (a1) (a10)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 13 December 2011

To present the Mediterranean diet (MD) pyramid: a lifestyle for today.


A new graphic representation has been conceived as a simplified main frame to be adapted to the different nutritional and socio-economic contexts of the Mediterranean region. This review gathers updated recommendations considering the lifestyle, dietary, sociocultural, environmental and health challenges that the current Mediterranean populations are facing.

Setting and Subjects

Mediterranean region and its populations.


Many innovations have arisen since previous graphical representations of the MD. First, the concept of composition of the ‘main meals’ is introduced to reinforce the plant-based core of the dietary pattern. Second, frugality and moderation is emphasised because of the major public health challenge of obesity. Third, qualitative cultural and lifestyle elements are taken into account, such as conviviality, culinary activities, physical activity and adequate rest, along with proportion and frequency recommendations of food consumption. These innovations are made without omitting other items associated with the production, selection, processing and consumption of foods, such as seasonality, biodiversity, and traditional, local and eco-friendly products.


Adopting a healthy lifestyle and preserving cultural elements should be considered in order to acquire all the benefits from the MD and preserve this cultural heritage. Considering the acknowledgment of the MD as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO (2010), and taking into account its contribution to health and general well-being, we hope to contribute to a much better adherence to this healthy dietary pattern and its way of life with this new graphic representation.

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