1.Shields, M (2006) Overweight and obesity among children and youth. Health Rep 17, 27–42.
2.World Health Organization (2003) WHO: Obesity and Overweight. What Are Obesity and Overweight? WHO Fact Sheet no. 311. Geneva: WHO.
3.Luo, W, Morrison, H, de Groh, M et al. (2007) The burden of adult obesity in Canada. Chronic Dis Can 27, 135–144.
6.Cowburn, G & Stockley, L (2005) Consumer understanding and use of nutrition labelling: a systematic review. Public Health Nutr 8, 21–28.
7.Feunekes, GI, Gortemaker, IA, Willems, AA et al. (2008) Front-of-pack nutrition labelling: testing effectiveness of different nutrition labelling formats front-of-pack in four European countries. Appetite 50, 57–70.
8.US Food and Drug Administration (1994) Guide to Nutrition Labelling and Education Act (NLEA) Requirements. Silver Spring, MD: Division of Field Investigations, Office of Regional Operations, Office of Regulatory Affairs, US Food & Drug Administration.
10.Government of Canada (2002) Food and Drugs Act. Regulations Amending the Food and Drug Regulations (Nutrition Labelling, Nutrient Content Claims and Health Claims). Canada Gazette Part II 137(1):Registration SOR/2003-11 12.
11.The Council of European Communities (1990) Council directive 90/496/EEC on nutrition labelling for foodstuffs of 24 September 1990. Off J Eur Commun L276, 40–44.
12.Geiger, CJ, Wyse, BW, Parent, CR et al. (1991) Review of nutrition labelling formats. J Am Diet Assoc 91, 808–812.
13.Baltas, G (2001) Nutrition labelling: issues and policies. Eur J Mark 35, 708–721.
14.Drichoutis, A (2006) 103 Consumers’ use of nutritional labels: a review of research studies and issues. Acad Mark Sci Rev 9, 93–118.
15.Grunert, K (2007) A review of European research on consumer response to nutrition information on food labels. J Public Health 15, 385–389.
16.Mhurchu, CN & Gorton, D (2007) Nutrition labels and claims in New Zealand and Australia: a review of use and understanding. Aust N Z J Public Health 31, 105–112.
17.Klopp, P & MacDonald, M (1981) Nutrition labels: an exploratory study of consumer reasons for nonuse. J Consum Aff 15, 301–316.
18.US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2001) Healthy People 2000 Final Review. Library of Congress Catalog Card no. 76–641496. Hyattsville, MD: Public Health Service.
19.Kessler, H & Wunderlich, SM (1999) Relationship between use of food labels and nutrition knowledge of people with diabetes. Diabetes Educ 25, 549–559.
20.Coulson, NS (2000) An application of the stages of change model to consumer use of food labels. Br Food J 102, 661–668.
21.Dooley, DA, Novotny, R & Britten, P (1998) Integrating research into the undergraduate nutrition curriculum: Improving shoppers’ awareness and understanding of nutrition facts labels. J Nutr Educ 30, 225–231.
22.Lindhorst, K, Corby, L, Roberts, S et al. (2007) Rural consumers’ attitudes: towards nutrition labelling. Can J Diet Pract Res 68, 146–149.
23.Perez-Escamilla, R, Himmelgreen, D, Bonello, H et al. (2001) Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Latinos in the USA: influence of language. Ecol Food Nutr 40, 321–345.
24.Piche, LA & Garcia, AC (2001) Factors influencing food-buying practices of grocery shoppers in London, Ontario. Can J Diet Pract Res 62, 199–202.
25.Bender, MM & Derby, BM (1992) Prevalence of reading nutrition and ingredient information on food labels among adult Americans: 1982–1988. J Nutr Educ 24, 292–297.
26.Crawford, D & Baghurst, KI (1990) Community views on food labelling. Food Aust 42, 231–233.
27.Blitstein, JL & Evans, WD (2006) Use of nutrition facts panels among adults who make household food purchasing decisions. J Nutr Educ Behav 38, 360–364.
28.Kristal, AR, Levy, L, Patterson, RE et al. (1998) Trends in food label use associated with new nutrition labelling regulations. Am J Public Health 88, 1212–1215.
29.Szykman, LR, Bloom, PN & Levy, AS (1997) A proposed model of the use of package claims and nutrition labels. J Public Policy Mark 16, 228–241.
30.Satia, JA, Galanko, JA & Neuhouser, ML (2005) Food nutrition label use is associated with demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors and dietary intake among African Americans in North Carolina. J Am Diet Assoc 105, 392–402.
31.Shine, A, O'Reilly, S & O'Sullivan, K (1997) Consumer attitudes to nutrition labelling. Br Food J 99, 283–289.
32.Reid, DJ, Conrad, SA & Hendricks, SM (1996) Tracking nutrition trends, 1989–1994: an update on Canadians’ attitudes, knowledge and reported actions. Can J Public Health 87, 113–118.
33.Rasberry, CN, Chaney, BH, Housman, JM et al. (2007) Determinants of nutrition label use among college students. Am J Health Educ 38, 76–82.
34.Byrd-Bredbenner, C, Alfieri, L, Wong, A et al. (2001) The inherent educational qualities of nutrition labels. Fam Consum Sci Res J 29, 265–280.
35.Jensen, K, Adams, L, Hollis, S et al. (1996) The new nutrition labels: a study of consumers’ use for dairy products. J Food Distrib Res 27, 49–57.
36.Huang, TTK, Kaur, H, McCarter, KS et al. (2004) Reading nutrition labels and fat consumption in adolescents. J Adolesc Health 35, 399–401.
37.Mannell, A, Brevard, P, Nayga, R Jr et al. (2006) French consumers’ use of nutrition labels. Nutr Food Sci 36, 159–168.
38.Michel, P, Korslund, M, Finan, A et al. (1994) Food label reading habits of WIC clients. J Nutr Educ 26, 146–148.
39.Hyman, DJ, Simons-Morton, DG, Ho, K et al. (1993) Cholesterol-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in a low-income, urban patient population. Am J Prev Med 9, 282–289.
40.Kessler, H & Wunderlich, SM (1999) Relationship between use of food labels and nutrition knowledge of people with diabetes. Diabetes Educ 25, 549–559.
41.McArthur, L, Chamberlain, V & Howard, AB (2001) Behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge of low-income consumers regarding nutrition labels. J Health Care Poor Underserved 12, 415–428.
42.Wandel, M (1997) Food labelling from a consumer perspective. Br Food J 99, 212–219.
43.Briley, ME, Owens, MS, Gillham, MB et al. (1990) Sources of nutrition information for rural and urban elderly adults. J Am Diet Assoc 90, 986–987.
44.Worsley, A (2003) Consumers’ personal values and sources of nutrition information. Ecol Food Nutr 42, 129–151.
45.Zarkin, GA & Anderson, DW (1992) Consumer and producer responses to nutrition label changes. Am J Agric Econ 74, 1202–1207.
46.Peters-Texeira, A & Badrie, N (2005) Consumers’ perception of food packaging in Trinidad, West Indies and its related impact on food choices. Int J Consum Stud 29, 508–514.
47.Loureiro, ML, Gracia, A & Nayga, RM Jr (2006) Do consumers value nutritional labels? Eur Rev Agric Econ 33, 249–268.
48.James, D (2004) Factors influencing food choices, dietary intake, and nutrition-related attitudes among African Americans: application of a culturally sensitive model. Ethn Health 9, 349–367.
49.Heimbach, JT & Orwin, RG (1984) Public perceptions of sodium labelling. J Am Diet Assoc 84, 1217–1219.
50.Elbon, SM, Johnson, MA & Fischer, JG (2000) Demographic factors, nutrition knowledge, and health-seeking behaviors influence nutrition label reading behaviors among older American adults. J Nutr Elder 19, 31–48.
51.Haldeman, L, Pérez-Escamilla, R, Ferris, AM et al. (2000) Development of a color-coded bilingual food label for low-literacy Latino caretakers. J Nutr Educ 32, 152–160.
52.Rothman, RL, Housam, R, Weiss, H et al. (2006) Patient understanding of food labels the role of literacy and numeracy. Am J Prev Med 31, 391–398.
53.Kreuter, MW, Brennan, LK, Scharff, DP et al. (1997) Do nutrition label readers eat healthier diets? Behavioral correlates of adults’ use of food labels. Am J Prev Med 13, 277–283.
54.Hawthorne, KM, Moreland, K, Griffin, IJ et al. (2006) An educational program enhances food label understanding of young adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 913–916.
55.Alfieri, L & Byrd-Bredbenner, C (2000) Assessing the performance of women on nutrition labelling tasks. Am J Health Stud 16, 113–123.
56.Byrd-Bredbenner, C (2000) The ability of college women aged 17 to 25 to perform tasks using nutrition facts labels. Int Electron J Health Educ 3, 97–106.
57.Byrd-Bredbenner, C, Wong, A & Cottee, P (2000) Consumer understanding of US and EU nutrition labels. Br Food J 102, 615–629.
58.Mohr, KG, Wyse, BW & Gaurth Hansen, R (1980) Aiding consumer nutrition decisions: comparison of a graphical nutrient density labelling format with the current food labelling system. Fam Consum Sci Res J 8, 162–172.
59.Marietta, AB, Welshimer, KJ & Long Anderson, S (1999) Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of college students regarding the 1990 nutrition labelling education act food labels. J Am Diet Assoc 99, 445–449.
60.Smith, SC, Taylor, JG & Stephen, AM (2007) Use of food labels and beliefs about diet–disease relationships among university students. Public Health Nutr 3, 175–182.
61.Signal, L, Lanumata, T, Robinson, JA et al. (2008) Perceptions of New Zealand nutrition labels by Māori, Pacific and low-income shoppers. Public Health Nutr 11, 706–713.
62.Wang, G, Fletcher, SM & Carley, DH (1995) Consumer utilization of food labelling as a source of nutrition information. J Consum Aff 29, 368–380.
63.Guthrie, JF, Fox, JJ, Cleveland, LE et al. (1995) Who uses nutrition labelling, and what effects does label use have on diet quality? J Nutr Educ 27, 163–172.
64.Gorton, D, Ni Mhurchu, C, Chen, M et al. (2008) Nutrition labels: a survey of use, understanding and preferences among ethnically diverse shoppers in New Zealand. Public Health Nutr 12, 1359–1365.
65.Crane, NT, Hubbard, VS & Lewis, CJ (1999) American diets and year 2000 goals. In America’s Eating Habits: Changes and Consequences. Agriculture Information Bulletin no. 750, pp. 111–133 [E Frazao, editor]. Washington, DC: Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture.
66.Higginson, CS, Rayner, MJ, Draper, S et al. (2002) The nutrition label – which information is looked at? Nutr Food Sci 32, 92–99.
67.Drichoutis, AC, Lazaridis, P & Nayga, RM Jr (2005) Who is looking for nutritional food labels? Wer sucht nach nahrwertangaben auf lebensmitteln?: Mais qui donc s’ occupe du contenu nutritionnel sur les etiquettes? Eurochoices 4, 18–23.
68.Lin, BH & Yen, ST (2008) Consumer knowledge, food label use and grain consumption in the US. Appl Econ 40, 437–448.
69.Drichoutis, AC, Lazaridis, P, Nayga, RM et al. (2008) A theoretical and empirical investigation of nutritional label use. Eur J Health Econ 9, 293–304.
70.Neuhouser, ML, Kristal, AR & Patterson, RE (1999) Use of food nutrition labels is associated with lower fat intake. J Am Diet Assoc 99, 45–53.
71.Kim, S & Douthitt, RA (2004) The role of dietary information in women's whole milk and low-fat milk intakes. Int J Consum Stud 28, 245–254.
72.Kim, S, Nayga, RM Jr & Capps, O (1999) The effect of new food labelling on nutrient intakes: an endogenous switching regression analysis. Selected paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Agricultural Economics Association, Nashville TN, USA, 8–11 August 1999.
73.Wandel, M & Bugge, A (1996) Nutrition information in the market: food labelling as an aid to the consumer. Int J Consum Stud 20, 215–228.
74.Finke, MS (2000) Did the Nutrition Labelling and Education Act Affect Food Choices in the United States? The American Consumer and the Changing Structure of the Food System Conference. Arlington, VA: Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture.
75.Byrd-Bredbenner, C, Wong, A & Cottee, P (2000) Consumer understanding of US and EU nutrition labels. Br Food J 102, 615–629.
76.Abbott, R (1997) Food and nutrition information: a study of sources, uses and understanding. Br Food J 99, 43–49.
77.Levy, L, Patterson, RE, Kirstal, AR et al. (2000) How well do consumers understand percentage daily value of food labels? Am J Health Promot 14, 157–160.
78.Worsley, A & Lea, E (2003) Consumers’ personal values and sources of nutrition information. Ecol Food Nutr 42, 129–151.
79.Hager, MH, Geiger, C, Hill, LJ et al. (2009) Usefulness of nutrition facts label for persons with chronic kidney disease. J Ren Nutr 19, 204–210.
80.Canadian Council of Food and Nutrition (2006) Tracking Nutrition Trends VI. Woodbridge, Ontario, Canada: CCFN.
81.Daly, PA (1976) The response of consumers to nutrition labelling. J Consum Aff 10, 170–178.
82.Kim, SY, Nayga, RM Jr & Capps, O (2001) Food label use, self-selectivity, and diet quality. J Consum Aff 35, 346–363.
83.Petrovici, DA & Ritson, C (2006) Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours. BMC Public Health 6, 222.
84.Burton, S & Andrews, JC (1996) Age, product nutrition, and label format effects on consumer perceptions and product evaluations. J Consum Aff 30, 68–89.
85.Misra, R (2007) Knowledge, attitudes, and label use among college students. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 2130–2134.
86.Drichoutis, AC, Lazaridis, P & Nayga, RM Jr (2005) Nutrition knowledge and consumer use of nutritional food labels. Eur Rev Agric Econ 32, 93–118.
87.McCullum, C & Achterberg, CL (1997) Food shopping and label use behavior among high school-aged adolescents. Adolescence 32, issue 125, 181–197.
88.Long, JAD, Armstrong, ML, Amos, E et al. (2006) Pilot using world wide web to prevent diabetes in adolescents. Clin Nurs Res 15, 67–79.
89.Abood, DA, Black, DR & Coster, DC (2008) Evaluation of a school-based teen obesity prevention minimal intervention. J Nutr Educ Behav 40, 168–174.
90.James, DCS, Rienzo, BA & Frazee, C (1997) Using focus groups to develop a nutrition education video for high school students. J Sch Health 67, 376–379.
91.Lytle, LA, Eldridge, A, Kotz, K et al. (1997) Children's interpretation of nutrition messages. J Nutr Educ 29, 128–136.
92.Jay, M, Adams, J, Herring, SJ et al. (2009) A randomized trial of a brief multimedia intervention to improve comprehension of food labels. Prev Med 48, 25–31.
93.Shine, A, O'Reilly, S & O'Sullivan, K (1997) Consumer use of nutrition labels. Br Food J 99, 290–296.
94.Nayga, RM Jr (2000) Nutrition knowledge, gender, and food label use. J Consum Aff 34, 97–112.
95.Burton, S, Garretson, JA & Velliquette, AM (1999) Implications of accurate usage of nutrition facts panel information for food product evaluations and purchase intentions. J Acad Mark Sci 27, 470–480.
96.Nayga, RM Jr, Lipinski, D & Savur, N (1998) Consumers’ use of nutritional labels while food shopping and at home. J Consum Aff 32, 106–120.
97.Hess, S, Yanes, M, Jourdan, P et al. (2005) Trans fat knowledge is related to education level and nutrition facts label use in health-conscious adults. Top Clin Nutr 20, 109–117.
98.Lin, CTJ, Lee, JY & Yen, ST (2004) Do dietary intakes affect search for nutrient information on food labels? Soc Sci Med 59, 1955–1967.
99.Ward, RW & Jauregui, C (2006) Do consumers really use food labels? Presented at 2006 Annual Meeting of the American Agricultural Economics Association, Long Beach, CA, USA, 23–26 July.
100.Gans, KM, Burkholder, GJ, Risica, PM et al. (2003) Baseline fat-related dietary behaviors of white, Hispanic, and black participants in a cholesterol screening and education project in new England. J Am Diet Assoc 103, 699–706.
101.Krystallis, A & Ness, M (2004) Motivational and cognitive structures of Greek consumers in the purchase of quality food products. J Int Consum Mark 16, 7–36.
102.Higginson, CS, Kirk, TR, Rayner, MJ et al. (2002) How do consumers use nutrition label information? Nutr Food Sci 32, 145–152.
103.Fitzgerald, N, Damio, G, Segura-Pérez, S et al. (2008) Nutrition knowledge, food label use, and food intake patterns among Latinas with and without type 2 diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 960–967.
104.Variyam, JN & Cawley, J (2006) Nutrition Labels and Obesity. NBER Working Paper no. 11956. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
105.Miller, CK, Jensen, GL & Achterberg, CL (1999) Evaluation of a food label nutrition intervention for women with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 99, 323–328.
106.Miller, CK, Probart, CK & Achterberg, CL (1997) Knowledge and misconceptions about the food label among women with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Educ 23, 425–432.
107.Silayoi, P & Speece, M (2004) Packaging and purchase decisions. Br Food J 106, 607–628.
108.Reid, DJ & Hendricks, S (1993) Consumer awareness of nutrition information on food package labels. J Can Diet Assoc 54, 127–131.
109.Aikman, SN, Min, KE & Graham, D (2006) Food attitudes, eating behavior, and the information underlying food attitudes. Appetite 47, 111–114.
110.Byrd-Bredbenner, C & Kiefer, L (2001) The ability of elderly women to perform nutrition facts label tasks and judge nutrient content claims. J Nutr Elder 20, 29–46.
111.Miller, C & Brown, J (1999) Knowledge and use of the food label among senior women in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Nutr Health Aging 3, 152–157.
112.Tessaro, I, Rye, S, Parker, L et al. (2007) Effectiveness of a nutrition intervention with rural low-income women. Am J Health Behav 31, 35–43.
113.Sullivan, AD (2003) Determining how low-income food shoppers perceive, understand, and use food labels. Can J Diet Pract Res 64, 25–27.
114.Keller, SB, Landry, M, Olson, J et al. (1997) The effects of nutrition package claims, nutrition facts panels, and motivation to process nutrition information on consumer product evaluations. J Public Pol Mark 16, 256–269.
115.Garretson, JA & Burton, S (2000) Effects of nutrition facts panel values, nutrition claims, and health claims on consumer attitudes, perceptions of disease-related risks, and trust. J Public Pol Mark 19, 213–227.
116.Balasubramanian, SK & Cole, C (2002) Consumers’ search and use of nutrition information: the challenge and promise of the nutrition labelling and education act. J Mark 66, 112–127.
117.Kozup, JC, Creyer, EH & Burton, S (2003) Making healthful food choices: the influence of health claims and nutrition information on consumers’ evaluations of packaged food products and restaurant menu items. J Mark 67, 19–34.
118.Heimbach, JT & Stokes, RC (1982) Nutrition labelling and public health: survey of American Institute of Nutrition members, food industry, and consumers. Am J Clin Nutr 36, 700–708.
119.Goldberg, JH, Probart, CK & Zak, RE (1999) Visual search of food nutrition labels. Hum Factors 41, 425–437.
120.Levy, AS & Fein, SB (1998) Consumers’ ability to perform tasks using nutrition labels. J Nutr Educ 30, 210–217.
121.Levy, A, Fein, SB & Schucker, RE (1992) More effective nutrition label formats are not necessarily preferred. J Am Diet Assoc 92, 1230–1234.
122.Burton, S, Biswas, A & Netemeyer, R (1994) Effects of alternative nutrition label formats and nutrition reference information on consumer perceptions, comprehension, and product evaluations. J Public Pol Mark 13, 36–47.
123.Howlett, E, Burton, S & Kozup, J (2008) How modification of the nutrition facts panel influences consumers at risk for heart disease: the case of trans fat. J Public Pol Mark 27, 83–97.
125.Block, LG & Peracchio, LA (2006) The calcium quandary: how consumers use nutrition labels. J Public Pol Mark 25, 188–196.
126.Pelletier, AL, Chang, WW, Delzell, JE et al. (2004) Patients’ understanding and use of snack food package nutrition labels. J Am Board Fam Med 17, 319–323.
127.Miller, CK, Edwards, L, Kissling, G et al. (2002) Evaluation of a theory-based nutrition intervention for older adults with diabetes mellitus. J Am Diet Assoc 102, 1069–1081.
128.Li, F, Miniard, PW & Barone, MJ (2000) The facilitating influence of consumer knowledge on the effectiveness of daily value reference information. J Acad Mark Sci 28, 425–436.
129.Marino, CJ & Mahan, RP (2005) Configural displays can improve nutrition-related decisions: An application of the proximity compatibility principle. J Hum Factors Ergon Soc 47, 121–130.
130.Lewis, CJ & Yetley, EA (1992) Focus group sessions on formats of nutrition labels. J Am Diet Assoc 92, 62–66.
131.Geiger, CJ, Wyse, BW, Parent, CR et al. (1991) Nutrition labels in bar graph format deemed most useful for consumer purchase decisions using adaptive conjoint analysis. J Am Diet Assoc 91, 800–807.
132.Levy, AS, Fein, SB & Schucker, RE (1996) Performance characteristics of seven nutrition label formats. J Public Pol Mark 15, 1–15.
133.Jones, G & Richardson, M (2007) An objective examination of consumer perception of nutrition information based on healthiness ratings and eye movements. Public Health Nutr 10, 238–244.
134.Kelly, B, Hughes, C, Chapman, K et al. (2009) Consumer testing of the acceptability and effectiveness of front-of-pack-food labelling systems for the Australian grocery market. Health Promot 24, 120–129.
135.van Kleef, E, van Trijp, H, Paeps, F et al. (2008) Consumer preferences for front-of-pack calories labelling. Public Health Nutr 11, 203–213.
136.Borgmeier, I & Westenhoefer, J (2009) Impact of different food label formats on healthiness evaluation and food choice of consumers: a randomized-controlled study. BMC Public Health 12, 184.
137.Wansink, B (2003) How do front and back package labels influence beliefs about health claims? J Consum Aff 37, 305–316.
138.Barone, MJ, Rose, RL, Manning, KC et al. (1996) Another look at the impact of reference information on consumer impressions of nutrition information. J Public Pol Mark 15, 55–62.
139.Antonuk, B & Block, LG (2006) The effect of single serving versus entire package nutritional information on consumption norms and actual consumption of a snack food. J Nutr Educ Behav 38, 365–370.
140.Nayga, RM Jr (1999) Retail health marketing: evaluating consumers’ choice for healthier foods. Health Mark Q 16, 53–65.
141.Kristal, AR, Hedderson, MM, Patterson, RE et al. (2001) Predictors of self-initiated, healthful dietary change. J Am Diet Assoc 101, 762–766.
142.Variyam, JN (2008) Do nutrition labels improve dietary outcomes? Health Econ 17, 695–708.
143.Variyam, JN (2008) Do nutrition labels improve dietary outcomes? Health Econ 17, 695–708.
144.Miller, DL, Castellanos, VH, Shide, DJ et al. (1998) Effect of fat-free potato chips with and without nutrition labels on fat and energy intakes. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 282–290.
145.Kral, T, Roe, L & Rolls, B (2002) Does nutrition information about the energy density of meals affect food intake in normal-weight women? Appetite 39, 137–145.
146.Miller, DL, Bell, EA, Pelkman, CL et al. (2000) Effects of dietary fat, nutrition labels, and repeated consumption on sensory-specific satiety. Physiol Behav 71, 153–158.
147.Baixauli, R, Salvador, A, Hough, G et al. (2008) How information about fibre (traditional and resistant starch) influences consumer acceptance of muffins. Food Qual Prefer 19, 628–635.
148.Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics (2008) Older Americans 2008: Key Indicators of Well-Being. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
149.Ferrini, AF & Ferrini, RL (2000) Nutrition. In Health in the Later Years, 3rd ed., p. 152. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
150.Freedman, DS, Dietz, WH, Srinivasan, SR et al. (1999) The relation of overweight to cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics 103, 1175–1182.
151.Pinhas-Hamiel, O, Dolan, LM, Daniels, SR et al. (1996) Increased incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus among adolescents. J Pediatr 128, 608–615.
152.Srinivasan, SR, Myers, L & Berenson, GS (2002) Predictability of childhood adiposity and insulin for developing insulin resistance syndrome (syndrome X) in young adulthood. Diabetes 51, 204–209.
153.Ferrini, AF & Ferrini, RL (2000) Chronic disease. In Health in the Later Years, 3rd ed., p. 239. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
154.Mackenbach, JP (2005) Genetics and health inequalities: hypotheses and controversies. J Epidemiol Commun Health 59, 268–273.
155.Carson, JAS & Hedl, JJ (1998) Smart shoppers tours: outcome evaluation. J Nutr Educ 30, 323–331.
157.Reid, DJ & Hendricks, SM (1994) Consumer understanding and use of fat and cholesterol information on food labels. Can J Public Health 85, 334–337.
159.Guthrie, JF, Lin, BH & Frazao, E (2002) Role of food prepared away from home in the American diet, 1977–78 versus 1994–96: changes and consequences. J Nutr Educ Behav 34, 140–150.
160.US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Services (2008) Food CPI, Prices and Expenditures: Food Away from Home. Washington, DC: USDA/ERS.
161.Berman, M & Lavizzo-Mourey, R (2008) Obesity prevention in the information age: caloric information at the point of purchase. JAMA 300, 433–435.