Hostname: page-component-6b989bf9dc-pkhfk Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-14T21:46:34.960Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Nutrition transition in Chile: determinants and consequences

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  22 December 2006

Cecilia Albala*
Affiliation:
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Av. Macul 5540, Santiago, Chile
Fernando Vio
Affiliation:
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Av. Macul 5540, Santiago, Chile
Juliana Kain
Affiliation:
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Av. Macul 5540, Santiago, Chile
Ricardo Uauy
Affiliation:
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 138-11, Av. Macul 5540, Santiago, Chile
*
*Corresponding author: Email calbala@uchile.cl
Rights & Permissions [Opens in a new window]

Abstract

Core share and HTML view are not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.
Objectives:

The purpose of this study was to analyse the determinants and consequences of the nutrition transition in Chile and describe the related health promotion policies.

Design and setting: This is a descriptive, population-based study including data on demographic, diet, nutrition and biomedical related variables. Data came from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the National Institute of Statistics (INE), the Ministries of Planning, Health and Education surveillance systems, and national surveys.

Results:

As malnutrition decreased during the 1980s, obesity increased rapidly in all age groups. In adults, currently about 25% of women are obese (body mass index > 30 kgm−2); particularly those from low socio-economic levels. Among pre-schoolers, obesity is now 10% while in 6-year-old children it is 17.5% (weight/height greater than two standard deviations (>2SD) of the World Health Organization reference). Nutritional risk factors are prevalent, diet is changing to a ‘Western diet’ with an increasing fat consumption, and sedentarianism is constant in all groups. High blood pressure (>140/90) is greater than 10% in adults. Diabetes is increasing in urban areas, including in the indigenous population, and more than 40% of adults have a cholesterol level of more than 200mgml−1.

Conclusions:

Promotion of healthy lifestyles is the main strategy to cope with this situation, particularly changing behaviour in food habits, physical activity and psychosocial factors. Changes in lifestyles will not only allow the prolonged life expectancy to be of better quality, but also will favour a decrease in the morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases, mainly cardiovascular diseases.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © CABI Publishing 2002

References

1Omran, AR. The epidemiologic transition: a theory of the epidemiology of population change. Milbank Q. 1971; 49: 509–38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2Frenk, J, Bobadilla, JL, Lozano, R. The edpidemiologic transition: the Latin American experience. Seminar on Causes and Prevention of Adult Mortality in Developing Countries, Santiago, Chile. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP), 1991.Google Scholar
3Olhansky, SJ, Adult, AB. The fourth stage of the epidemiologic transition: the age of delayed degenerative diseases. Milbank Q. 1986; 64: 355–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
4Albala, C, Vio, F. Epidemiological transition in Latin America: the case of Chile. Public Health 1995; 109: 431–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
5Vio, F, Albala, C, Crovetto, M. Health promotion in the Chilean epidemiological transition. Rev. Chil. Nutr. 2000; 27: 21–9.Google Scholar
6Vio, F, Albala, C. Nutrition policy in the Chilean transition. Public Health Nutr. 2000; 3: 4955.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
7Popkin, BM. Nutritional patterns and transition. Popul. Dev. Rev. 1993; 19: 138–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8The World Bank. The Risk Factors In Chile. The Adult Health Policy Challenge. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 1995; 51.Google Scholar
9Ministry of Health. Performance Report. Health Situation in Chile 1999. Santiago: Department of Communications and Public Relations, 2000.Google Scholar
10Ministry of Planning (MIDEPLAN). CASEN Survey Reports 1998 and 2000. Santiago: Ministry of Planning, 1999 and 2001.Google Scholar
11National Institute of Statistics (INE). Demographic Annual Reports 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995 and 1998. Chile: INE, 1970/1975/1980/1985/1990/1995/1998.Google Scholar
12World Health Organization (WHO). The state of the world health. World Health Forum: Int. J. Health Dev. 1995; 16: 377–85.Google Scholar
13Murray, CJ, Lopez, AD. Mortality by cause for eight regions of the world: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 1997; 349: 1269–76.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
14Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada (HSFC). Causes of Death in Canada. Ottawa: HSFC, 1993 (Supplement).Google Scholar
15World Health Organization (WHO). The World Health Report 1998. Life in the 21st Century. A Vision for All. Geneva: WHO, 1998.Google Scholar
16Ministry of Health, Department of Epidemiology. Health Situation. Santiago: Ministry of Health, 1996.Google Scholar
17Olivares, S, Albala, C, Garcia, F, Jofre, I. Television publicity and food preferences of school age children of the Metropolitan Region. Rev. Med. Chile 1999; 127: 791–9.Google ScholarPubMed
18: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). FAO Food Balance Sheets 1998 and 1998 [Online]. Available at http://www.fao.org. [Accessed September 2000].Google Scholar
19National Institute of Statistics (INE). National Household Surveys on Food Expenditure 1988 and 1998. Chile: INE, 1998 and 1998.Google Scholar
20Atalah, E, Urteaga, C, Rebolledo, A. Food consumption of natural antioxidants in adults' diet. Rev. Chil. Nutr. 1995; 23: 3441.Google Scholar
21Prentice, AM, Jebb, SA. Obesity in Britain: gluttony or sloth? Br. Med. J. 1995; 311: 437–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
22National Institute of Statistics (INE). Statistics Summary 2000. Chile: INE, 2000.Google Scholar
23Berríos, X, Jadue, L, Zenteno, J, Ross, MI, Rodriguez, H. Prevalence of risk factors for chronic diseases: a population study in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago, Chile. 1986–1987. Rev. Med. Chile 1990; 118: 597604.Google ScholarPubMed
24Berrios, X. Risk factors in adult chronic diseases. An example of epidemiologic research. Boletin Esc. Medicina P. Universidad Católica de Chile 1994; 23: 7389.Google Scholar
25Jadue, L, Vega, J, Escobar, MC, Delgado, I, Garrido, C, Lastra, P, Espejo, F, Peruga, A. Risk factors for chronic non communicable diseases: methods and results of CARMEN program basal survey. Rev. Med. Chile 1999; 127: 1004–13.Google ScholarPubMed
26Albala, C, Vio, F, Kain, J, Uauy, R. Nutrition transition in Latin America: the case of Chile. Nutr. Rev. 2001; 59: 170–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
27Kain, J, Uauy, R, Vio, F, Albala, C. Trends in overwight and obesity prevalence in Chilean children: comparison of three definitions. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2002 [in press].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
28Gomez, R, Sandoval, S, Getavagno, A. Reference values for the adult population in clinical chemistry. Boletín del Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile 1984; 25: 236–40.Google Scholar
29Albala, C, Villarroel, P, Olivares, S, Trufello, I, Vio, F, Andrade, M. Diet and lipoproteins in obese women of high and low socio-economic status. Rev. Med. Chile 1989; 117: 39.Google Scholar
30Milos, C, Casanueva, V, Campos, R, Cid, X, Silva, V, Rodríguez, W, Rodríguez, MS. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in school children at Concepcion, Chile: Part one: serum lipids in 552 children and adolescents between 6 and 15 years old. Rev. Chile. Pediatr. 1990; 61: 6773.Google Scholar
31Casanueva, V, Cid, X, Chiang, MT, Roman, R, Milos, C, Reyes, M, Venegas, H, Casanueva, P. Serum lipid levels in children and teenagers from Concepción, Chile. Rev. Med. Chile 1996; 124: 1453–61.Google ScholarPubMed
32World Health Organization (WHO). Obesity. Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity. Geneva: WHO, 1997; 35.Google Scholar
33Kleinman, JC, Donahue, RP, Harris, MI, Finucane, FF, Madans, JH, Brock, DB. Mortality among diabetics in a national sample. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1988; 128: 389401.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
34Mella, I, García de los Ríos, M, Parker, M, Covarrubia, A. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in the metropolitan area of Santiago. Rev. Med. Chile 1981; 109: 869–75.Google Scholar
35Larenas, G, Arias, G, Espinoza, O, Charles, M, Landaeta, O, Villanueva, S, Espinoza, A. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in an indigenous (Mapuche) community of the IX Region in Chile. Rev. Med. Chile 1985; 113: 1121–5.Google Scholar
36Perez-Bravo, F, Carrasco, E, Santos, JL, Calvillan, M, Larenas, G, Albala, C. Type-2 diabetes and obesity prevalence rates in rural Mapuche population from Chile. Nutrition 2001; 17: 236–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
37Uauy, R, Albala, C, Kain, J. Obesity trends in Latin America: transting from under to overweight. J. Nutr. 2001; 131: 893S–9S.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
38Vega, J, Jadue, L, Escobar, MC, Jalil, J, Espejo, F, Delgado, I, Garrido, C, Lastra, P, Peruga, A. Prevalence of hypertension in Valparaiso. Results of the base survey of CARMEN project. Rev. Med. Chile 1999; 127: 729–38.Google ScholarPubMed
39Fasce, E, Perez, H, Boggiano, G, Lecannelier, E. Hypertension in a Chilean urban community. Rev. Chilena de Cardiología 1992; 11: 112.Google Scholar
40Fasce, E, Perez, H, Boggiano, G, Ibáñez, P, Nieto, C. Hypertension in rural communities of the VIII Region in Chile. Rev. Med. Chile 1993; 121: 1058–67.Google Scholar
41Rodríguez, H, Dockendorf, I. High blood pressure in a rural community in Chile. Bol. Of. Sanit. Panam. 1979; 87: 377–88.Google Scholar
42Castillo, O, Rozovsky, J. Fat consumption trend. Rev. Chil. Nutr. 2000; 27S: 105S–12S.Google Scholar
43National Board for Health Promotion (VIDA CHILE). Strategic Plan for Health Promotion 2001–2006. Goals for 2006. Santiago: VIDA CHILE, 2000.Google Scholar