Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Risk factors for prelacteal feeding in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis of population data from twenty-two countries

  • Anselm S Berde (a1) and Hilal Ozcebe (a1)
Abstract
Objective

To examine the risk factors of prelacteal feeding (PLF) among mothers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Design

We pooled data from Demographic and Health Surveys in twenty-two SSA countries. The key outcome variable was PLF. A multilevel logistic regression model was used to explore factors associated with PLF.

Setting

Demographic and Health Surveys in twenty-two SSA countries.

Subjects

Mother–baby pairs (n 95348).

Results

Prevalence of PLF in SSA was 32·2 %. Plain water (22·1 %), milk other than breast milk (5·0 %) and sugar or glucose water (4·1 %) were the predominant prelacteal feeds. In the multivariable analysis, mothers who had caesarean section delivery had 2·25 times the odds of giving prelacteal feeds compared with mothers who had spontaneous vaginal delivery (adjusted OR=2·25; 95 % CI 2·06, 2·46). Other factors that were significantly associated with increased likelihood of PLF were mother’s lower educational status, first birth rank, fourth or above birth rank with preceding birth interval less than or equal to 24 months, lower number of antenatal care visits, home delivery, multiple birth, male infant, as well as having an average or small sized baby at birth. Mothers aged 20–34 years were less likely to give prelacteal feeds compared with mothers aged ≤19 years. Belonging to the second, middle or fourth wealth quintile was associated with lower likelihood of PLF compared with the highest quintile.

Conclusions

To achieve optimal breast-feeding, there is a need to discourage breast-feeding practices such as PLF. Breast-feeding promotion programmes should target the at-risk sub-population groups discovered in our study.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Risk factors for prelacteal feeding in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis of population data from twenty-two countries
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Risk factors for prelacteal feeding in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis of population data from twenty-two countries
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Risk factors for prelacteal feeding in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis of population data from twenty-two countries
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Email get2anselm@gmail.com
References
Hide All
1. World Health Organization (2003) The global strategy for infant and young child feeding. http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/infantfeeding/9241562218/en/ (accessed March 2016).
2. World Health Organization (2008) Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices. Part 1: Definitions. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2008/9789241596664_eng.pdf (accessed March 2016).
3. UNICEF (2008) Early Childhood Development: The Key to a Full and Productive Life. New York: UNICEF.
4. World Health Organization (2009) Global Health Risks: Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risks. Geneva: WHO.
5. World Health Organization (2016) Infant and young child feeding. http://who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs342/en/ (accessed June 2016).
6. Mullany, LC, Katz, J, Li, YM et al. (2008) Breast-feeding patterns, time to initiation, and mortality risk among newborns in southern Nepal. J Nutr 138, 599603.
7. Hajeebhoy, N, Nguyen, PH, Mannava, P et al. (2014) Suboptimal breastfeeding practices are associated with infant illness in Vietnam. Int Breastfeed J 9, 12.
8. Edmond, KM, Kirkwood, BR, Amenga-Etego, S et al. (2007) Effect of early infant feeding practices on infection-specific neonatal mortality: an investigation of the causal links with observational data from rural Ghana. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 11261131.
9. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa (2015) Child health. http://www.afro.who.int/en/clusters-a-programmes/frh/child-and-adolescent-health/programme-components/child-health.html (accessed June 2016).
10. Khanal, V, Adhikari, M, Sauer, K et al. (2013) Factors associated with introduction of prelacteal feeding in Nepal. Findings from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. Int Breastfeed J 8, 9.
11. Belachew, AB, Kahsay, AB & Abebe, YG (2016) Individual and community-level factors associated with introduction of prelacteal feeding in Ethiopia. Arch Public Health 74, 6.
12. Legesse, M, Demena, M, Mesfin, F et al. (2014) Prelacteal feeding practices and associated factors among mothers of children aged less than 24 months in Raya Kobo district, North Eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Int Breastfeed J 9, 189.
13. Perez-Escamilla, R, Segura-Millan, S & Canahuati, J (1996) Pre-lacteal feeding is negatively associated with breastfeeding outcomes in Honduras. J Nutr 126, 27652773.
14. Moore, ER, Anderson, GC, Bergman, N et al. (2012) Early skin-to-skin contact for mothers and their healthy newborn infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev issue 5, CD003519.
15. Rogers, NL, Abdi, J, Moore, D et al. (2011) Colostrum avoidance, prelacteal feeding and late breast-feeding initiation in rural Northern Ethiopia. Public Health Nutr 14, 20292036.
16. Raina, SK, Vijay, M & Gurdeep, S (2012) Determinants of prelacteal feeding among infants of RS Pura block of Jammu and Kashmir. J Family Med Prim Care 1, 2729.
17. Lakati, AS, Makokha, OA, Binns, CW et al. (2010) The effect of pre-lacteal feeding on full breastfeeding in Nairobi, Kenya. East Afr J Public Health 7, 258262.
18. ICF Macro (2016) Demographic and Health Surveys. http://dhsprogram.com/ (accessed November 2015).
19. The World Bank Group (2016) World Bank Open Data. http://data.worldbank.org/ (accessed November 2015).
20. United Nations (2016) 2015 Revision of World Population Prospects. http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/ (accessed November 2015).
21. Hedeker, D & Robert, G (1996) MIXOR: a computer program for mixed effects ordinal regression analysis. Comput Methods Programs Biomed 49, 157176.
22. Goldstein, H & Michael, JRH (1995) The graphical presentation of a collection of means. J R Stat Soc Ser A Stat Soc 158, 175177.
23. Boccolini, CS, Pérez-Escamilla, R, Giugliani, ER et al. (2015) Inequities in milk-based prelacteal feedings in Latin America and the Caribbean: the role of cesarean section delivery. J Hum Lact 31, 8998.
24. Khanal, V, Lee, AH, Nunes, B et al. (2014) Prelacteal feeding of newborns in postconflict Timor-Leste. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 59, 162166.
25. El-Gilany, AH & Abdel-Hady, DM (2014) Newborn first feed and prelacteal feeds in Mansoura, Egypt. Biomed Res Int 2014, 258470.
26. Ahmed, FU, Rahmani, ME & Alam, MS (1996) Prelacteal feeding: influencing factors and relation to establishment of lactation. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull 22, 6064.
27. Roy, MP, Mohan, U, Singh, SK et al. (2014) Determinants of pre lacteal feeding in rural northern India. Int J Prev Med 5, 658663.
28. Sundaram, ME, Labrique, AB, Mehra, S et al. (2013) Early neonatal feeding is common and associated with subsequent breastfeeding behavior in rural Bangladesh. J Nutr 143, 11611167.
29. Skafida, V (2009) The relative importance of social class and maternal education for breast-feeding initiation. Public Health Nutr 12, 22852292.
30. Dewey, KG & Cohen, RJ (2007) Does birth spacing affect maternal or child nutritional status? A systematic literature review. Matern Child Nutr 3, 151173.
31. Bekele, Y, Mengistie, B & Mesfine, F (2014) Prelacteal feeding practice and associated factors among mothers attending immunization clinic in Harari Region public health facilities, Eastern Ethiopia. Open J Prev Med 4, 529534.
32. Nguyen, PH, Keithly, SC, Nguyen, NT et al. (2013) Prelacteal feeding practices in Vietnam: challenges and associated factors. BMC Public Health 13, 932.
33. Duong, DV, Binns, CW & Lee, AH (2004) Breast-feeding initiation and exclusive breast-feeding in rural Vietnam. Public Health Nutr 7, 795799.
34. Albokhary, AA & James, JP (2014) Does cesarean section have an impact on the successful initiation of breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia? Saudi Med J 35, 14001403.
35. Yokoyama, Y & Ooki, S (2004) Breast-feeding and bottle-feeding of twins, triplets and higher order multiple births. Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 51, 969974.
36. Ford, RPK, Mitchell, EA, Scragg, R et al. (1994) Factors adversely associated with breastfeeding in New Zealand. J Paediatr Child Health 30, 483489.
37. Addy, HA (1975) The breast-feeding of twins. J Trop Pediatr Environ Child Health 21, 231239.
38. Sadhasivam, M & Kanagasabapathy, S (2015) Pre lacteal feeding practice among rural mothers in Tamilnadu – a questionnaire based study. Int J Biomed Adv Res 6, 484487.
39. Nigus, B, Henok, K, Mussie, M et al. (2016) Factors associated with prelacteal feeding in North Eastern Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study. Int Breastfeed J 11, 13.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed