1.Black, RE, Cousens, S, Johnson, HLet al. (2010) Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2008: a systematic analysis. Lancet 375, 1969–1987.
2.Rajaratnam, JK, Marcus, JR, Flaxman, ADet al. (2010) Neonatal, postneonatal, childhood, and under-5 mortality for 187 countries, 1970–2010: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4. Lancet 375, 1988–2008.
3.Morris, SS, Cogill, B & Uauy, R (2008) Effective international action against undernutrition: why has it proven so difficult and what can be done to accelerate progress? Lancet 371, 608–621.
5.World Health Organization (2005) Pocket Book of Hospital Care for Children: Guidelines for the Management of Common Illnesses with Limited Resources. Geneva: WHO.
6.Bassat, Q, Machevo, S, O'Callaghan-Gordo, Cet al. (2011) Distinguishing malaria from severe pneumonia among hospitalized children who fulfilled integrated management of childhood illness criteria for both diseases: a hospital-based study in Mozambique. Am J Trop Med Hyg 85, 626–634.
7.Nhacolo, A, Nhalungo, D, Sacoor, Cet al. (2006) Levels and trends of demographic indices in southern rural Mozambique: evidence from demographic surveillance in Manhica district. BMC Public Health 6, 291.
8.Guinovart, C, Bassat, Q, Sigauque, Bet al. (2008) Malaria in rural Mozambique. Part I: children attending the outpatient clinic. Malar J 7, 36.
9.Gonzalez, R, Munguambe, K, Aponte, Jet al. (2012) High HIV prevalence in a southern semi-rural area of Mozambique: a community-based survey. HIV Med 13, 581–588.
10.Sigauque, B, Roca, A, Mandomando, Iet al. (2009) Community-acquired bacteremia among children admitted to a rural hospital in Mozambique. Pediatr Infect Dis J 28, 108–113.
11.Glisser, M (editor) (1997) Normas Pediatricas. Maputo: Ministério da Saúde.
12.World Health Organization (2009) Handbook on Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI). Geneva: WHO.
13.Shann, F (1993) Nutritional indices: Z, centile, or percent? Lancet 341, 526–527.
14.Kuczmarski, RJ, Ogden, CL, Grummer-Strawn, LMet al. (2000) CDC growth charts: United States. Adv Data issue 314, 1–27.
15.Cole, TJ (1990) The LMS method for constructing normalized growth standards. Eur J Clin Nutr 44, 45–60.
16.Suh, JS, Hahn, WH & Cho, BS (2010) Recent advances of oral rehydration therapy (ORT). Electrolyte Blood Press 8, 82–86.
19.Joosten, KF & Hulst, JM (2008) Prevalence of malnutrition in pediatric hospital patients. Curr Opin Pediatr 20, 590–596.
20.Cartmell, E, Natalal, H, Francois, Iet al. (2005) Nutritional and clinical status of children admitted to the malnutrition ward, Maputo central hospital: a comparison of data from 2001 and 1983. J Trop Pediatr 51, 102–105.
21.Thakwalakwa, C, Phuka, J, Flax, Vet al. (2009) Prevention and treatment of childhood malnutrition in rural Malawi: Lungwena nutrition studies. Malawi Med J 21, 116–119.
22.Ashorn, P, Phuka, JC, Maleta, Ket al. (2009) Undernutrition malnutrition in infants in developing countries. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 163, 186.
23.Bhutta, ZA, Ahmed, T, Black, REet al. (2008) What works? Interventions for maternal and child undernutrition and survival. Lancet 371, 417–440.
24.Fawzi, WW, Herrera, MG, Spiegelman, DLet al. (1997) A prospective study of malnutrition in relation to child mortality in the Sudan. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 1062–1069.
25.Briend, A & Bari, A (1989) Breastfeeding improves survival, but not nutritional status, of 12–35 months old children in rural Bangladesh. Eur J Clin Nutr 43, 603–608.
26.Dadhich, JP & Agarwal, RK (2009) Mainstreaming early and exclusive breastfeeding for improving child survival. Indian Pediatr 46, 11–17.
27.Alvarez-Uria, G, Midde, M, Pakam, Ret al. (2012) Effect of formula feeding and breastfeeding on child growth, infant mortality, and HIV transmission in children born to HIV-infected pregnant women who received triple antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting: data from an HIV cohort study in India. ISRN Pediatr 2012, 763591.
28.Saloojee, H, De Maayer, T, Garenne, MLet al. (2007) What's new? Investigating risk factors for severe childhood malnutrition in a high HIV prevalence South African setting. Scand J Public Health Suppl 69, 96–106.
29.Kimani-Murage, EW, Norris, SA, Pettifor, JMet al. (2011) Nutritional status and HIV in rural South African children. BMC Pediatr 11, 23.
30.Mandomando, I, Macete, E, Sigauque, Bet al. (2009) Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella in Mozambican children. Trop Med Int Health 14, 1467–1474.
31.Mandomando, I, Sigauque, B, Morais, Let al. (2010) Antimicrobial drug resistance trends of bacteremia isolates in a rural hospital in southern Mozambique. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83, 152–157.
32.Nyakeriga, AM, Troye-Blomberg, M, Chemtai, AKet al. (2004) Malaria and nutritional status in children living on the coast of Kenya. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 1604–1610.
33.Muller, O, Garenne, M, Kouyate, Bet al. (2003) The association between protein-energy malnutrition, malaria morbidity and all-cause mortality in West African children. Trop Med Int Health 8, 507–511.
34.Fillol, F, Sarr, JB, Boulanger, Det al. (2009) Impact of child malnutrition on the specific anti-Plasmodium falciparum antibody response. Malar J 8, 116.
35.Friedman, JF, Kwena, AM, Mirel, LBet al. (2005) Malaria and nutritional status among pre-school children: results from cross-sectional surveys in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73, 698–704.
36.Deen, JL, Walraven, GE & von Seidlein, L (2002) Increased risk for malaria in chronically malnourished children under 5 years of age in rural Gambia. J Trop Pediatr 48, 78–83.
37.Genton, B, Al-Yaman, F, Ginny, Met al. (1998) Relation of anthropometry to malaria morbidity and immunity in Papua New Guinean children. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 734–741.
38.Naniche, D, Bardaji, A, Lahuerta, Met al. (2009) Impact of maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection on birth outcomes and infant survival in rural Mozambique. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80, 870–876.