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Stunting coexisting with overweight in 2·0–4·9-year-old Indonesian children: prevalence, trends and associated risk factors from repeated cross-sectional surveys

  • Cut Novianti Rachmi (a1), Kingsley Emwinyore Agho (a2), Mu Li (a3) and Louise Alison Baur (a1) (a3)
Abstract
AbstractObjective

The persistence of undernutrition, along with overweight and obesity, constitute the double burden of malnutrition. The present study aimed to: (i) describe the prevalence and trends of concurrent stunting and overweight in Indonesian children; (ii) identify potentially associated risk factors; and (iii) determine whether stunted children are at greater risk of overweight compared with those of healthy height.

Design

A secondary data analysis of children aged 2·0–4·9 years in four cross-sectional studies of the Indonesian Family Life Survey. Children’s height and BMI Z-scores were calculated based on the WHO Child Growth Standards (2006). We defined ‘concurrent stunting and overweight’ as height-for-age Z-score <−2 and BMI Z-score >+1. Multivariate generalised linear latent and mixed models were used to determine associated risk factors.

Setting

Thirteen out of twenty-seven provinces in Indonesia.

Subjects

Children (n 4101) from four waves of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (1993–2007).

Results

There were inconsistent trends in the prevalence of concurrent stunting and overweight from waves 1 to 4. Children were more likely to be stunted and overweight when they were in the youngest age group (2·0–2·9 years), were weaned after the age of 6 months, had short-statured mothers or lived in rural areas. Stunted children were significantly more likely to be overweight than healthy-height children (OR>1) but did not differ significantly different across each wave (OR=1·34–2·01).

Conclusions

Concurrent stunting and overweight occurs in Indonesian children aged 2·0–4·9 years. Current policies and programmes need to be tailored for the management of this phenomenon.

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Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email cut.rachmi@health.nsw.gov.au; crac8243@uni.sydney.edu.au
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