Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Sweets and sugar-sweetened soft drink intake in childhood in relation to adult BMI and overweight. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

  • Katja Nissinen (a1), Vera Mikkilä (a2), Satu Männistö (a3), Marjaana Lahti-Koski (a1) (a4), Leena Räsänen (a2), Jorma Viikari (a5) and Olli T Raitakari (a6)...

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the associations of BMI and overweight in adulthood with consumption of sweets and sugar-sweetened soft drinks in childhood and with the change in consumption between childhood and adulthood.

Design

Longitudinal 21-year follow-up study of Finnish children and adolescents from childhood to adulthood.

Setting

The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, comprising participants from both eastern and western Finland.

Subjects

Boys (n 967) and girls (n 1172) aged 3–18 years at baseline in 1980.

Results

The increase in consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks from childhood to adulthood was directly associated with BMI in adulthood in women (b = 0·45, P = 0·0001) but not in men. In women, BMI increased by 0·45 kg/m2 for every 10-unit increase per month. Consumption of sweets and sugar-sweetened soft drinks in childhood and adolescence was not associated with BMI in adulthood. The change in consumption of sweets was not associated with BMI in adulthood. The increase in the consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks from childhood to adulthood was associated with being overweight (OR = 1·90, 95 % CI 1·38, 2·61) in women, but not in men. No association was found between overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) in adulthood and consumption of sweets in childhood or the change in consumption from childhood to adulthood.

Conclusions

We conclude that direct associations exist between adulthood overweight and BMI and an increase in consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks in women. Thus sugar-sweetened soft drinks consumption may be important when considering weight management in women.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Sweets and sugar-sweetened soft drink intake in childhood in relation to adult BMI and overweight. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Sweets and sugar-sweetened soft drink intake in childhood in relation to adult BMI and overweight. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Sweets and sugar-sweetened soft drink intake in childhood in relation to adult BMI and overweight. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Email Katja.Nissinen@thl.fi

References

Hide All
1.Kautiainen, S, Rimpelä, A, Vikat, A & Virtanen, SM (2002) Secular trends in overweight and obesity among Finnish adolescents in 1977–1999. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26, 544552.
2.International Obesity Taskforce, European Association for the Study of Obesity (2002) Obesity in Europe. Case for Action. London: IOTF.
3.Popkin, BM & Nielsen, SJ (2003) The sweetening of the world’s diet. Obes Res 11, 13251332.
4.Finnish Food and Drink Industries’ Federation (2005) Domestic Sales of Finnish Food Products. http://www.etl.fi/english/stat/pdf/kotimaa2004_ENG.pdf (accessed March 2006).
5.Federation of the Brewing and Soft Drinks Industry (2005) Consumption of beverages, litres per capita. http://www.panimoliitto.fi/panimoliitto/en/statistics/consumption_of_beverages_1980_2004.pdf (accessed March 2006).
6.Federation of the Brewing and Soft Drinks Industry (2005) Domestic sales of the Brewing and Soft Drinks Industry. http://www.panimoliitto.fi/panimoliitto/en/statistics/domestic_sales_1980_2004.pdf (accessed March 2006).
7.Phillips, SM, Bandini, LG, Naumova, EN, Cyr, H, Colclough, S, Dietz, WH & Must, A (2004) Energy-dense snack food intake in adolescence: longitudinal relationship to weight and fatness. Obes Res 12, 461472.
8.Janssen, I, Katzmarzyk, PT, Boyce, WF, Vereecken, C, Mulvihill, C, Roberts, C, Currie, C & Pickett, W (2005) Comparison of overweight and obesity prevalence in school-aged youth from 34 countries and their relationships with physical activity and dietary patterns. Obes Rev 6, 123132.
9.Bachman, CM, Baranowski, T & Nicklas, TA (2006) Is there an association between sweetened beverages and adiposity? Nutr Rev 64, 153174.
10.Berkey, CS, Rockett, HR, Field, AE, Gillman, MW & Colditz, GA (2004) Sugar-added beverages and adolescent weight change. Obes Res 12, 778788.
11.Kvaavik, E, Andersen, LF & Klepp, KI (2005) The stability of soft drinks intake from adolescence to adult age and the association between long-term consumption of soft drinks and lifestyle factors and body weight. Public Health Nutr 8, 149157.
12.Ludwig, DS, Peterson, KE & Gortmaker, SL (2001) Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet 357, 505508.
13.Schulze, MB, Manson, JE, Ludwig, DS, Colditz, GA, Stampfer, MJ, Willett, WC & Hu, FB (2004) Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. JAMA 292, 927934.
14.Juonala, M, Viikari, JS, Hutri-Kähönen, N, Pietikäinen, M, Jokinen, E, Taittonen, L, Marniemi, J, Rönnemaa, T & Raitakari, OT (2004) The 21-year follow-up of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study: risk factor levels, secular trends and east–west difference. J Intern Med 255, 457468.
15.Åkerblom, HK, Viikari, J, Raitakari, OT & Uhari, M (1999) Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study: general outline and recent developments. Ann Med 31, Suppl. 1, 4554.
16.Raitakari, OT, Juonala, M, Kähönen, M et al. (2003) Cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and carotid artery intima-media thickness in adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. JAMA 290, 22772283.
17.Juonala, M (2005) Cardiovascular risk factors and their associations with markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Dissertation, University of Turku.
18.Mikkilä, V, Räsänen, L, Raitakari, OT, Pietinen, P & Viikari, J (2005) Consistent dietary patterns identified from childhood to adulthood: the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns Study. Br J Nutr 93, 923931.
19.World Health Organization (2000) Obesity, Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of the WHO Consultation on Obesity. Geneva: WHO.
20.Cole, TJ, Bellizzi, MC, Flegal, KM & Dietz, WH (2000) Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 320, 12401243.
21.Bertheke Post, G, de Vente, W, Kemper, HC & Twisk, JW (2001) Longitudinal trends in and tracking of energy and nutrient intake over 20 years in a Dutch cohort of men and women between 13 and 33 years of age: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study. Br J Nutr 85, 375385.
22.Birch, LL (1999) Development of food preferences. Annu Rev Nutr 19, 4162.
23.Boreham, C, Robson, PJ, Gallagher, AM, Cran, GW, Savage, JM & Murray, LJ (2004) Tracking of physical activity, fitness, body composition and diet from adolescence to young adulthood: The Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 1, 14.
24.Kelder, SH, Perry, CL, Klepp, KI & Lytle, LL (1994) Longitudinal tracking of adolescent smoking, physical activity, and food choice behaviors. Am J Public Health 84, 11211126.
25.Mikkilä, V, Räsänen, L, Raitakari, OT, Pietinen, P & Viikari, J (2004) Longitudinal changes in diet from childhood into adulthood with respect to risk of cardiovascular diseases: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 10381045.
26.Bes-Rastrollo, M, Sanchez-Villegas, A, Gomez-Gracia, E, Martinez, JA, Pajares, RM & Martinez-Gonzalez, MA (2006) Predictors of weight gain in a Mediterranean cohort: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra Study 1. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 362370.
27.Young, LR & Nestle, M (2002) The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity epidemic. Am J Public Health 92, 246249.
28.Matthiessen, J, Fagt, S, Biltoft-Jensen, A, Beck, AM & Ovesen, L (2003) Size makes a difference. Public Health Nutr 6, 6572.
29.Ledikwe, JH, Ello-Martin, JA & Rolls, BJ (2005) Portion sizes and the obesity epidemic. J Nutr 135, 905909.
30.Ello-Martin, JA, Ledikwe, JH & Rolls, BJ (2005) The influence of food portion size and energy density on energy intake: implications for weight management. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 1 Suppl., 236S241S.
31.Almiron-Roig, E, Chen, Y & Drewnowski, A (2003) Liquid calories and the failure of satiety: how good is the evidence? Obes Rev 4, 201212.
32.DiMeglio, DP & Mattes, RD (2000) Liquid versus solid carbohydrate: effects on food intake and body weight. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 794800.
33.Malik, VS, Schulze, MB & Hu, FB (2006) Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 274288.
34.Hill, RJ & Davies, PS (2001) The validity of self-reported energy intake as determined using the doubly labelled water technique. Br J Nutr 85, 415430.
35.Hirvonen, T, Männistö, S, Roos, E & Pietinen, P (1997) Increasing prevalence of underreporting does not necessarily distort dietary surveys. Eur J Clin Nutr 51, 297301.
36.Johansson, G, Wikman, A, Ahren, AM, Hallmans, G & Johansson, I (2004) Underreporting of energy intake in repeated 24-hour recalls related to gender, age, weight status, day of interview, educational level, reported food intake, smoking habits and area of living. Public Health Nutr 4, 919927.
37.Lafay, L, Mennen, L, Basdevant, A, Charles, MA, Borys, JM, Eschwege, E & Romon, M (2000) Does energy intake underreporting involve all kinds of food or only specific food items? Results from the Fleurbaix Laventie Ville Sante (FLVS) study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 15001506.
38.Scagliusi, FB, Polacow, VO, Artioli, GG, Benatti, FB & Lancha, AH Jr (2003) Selective underreporting of energy intake in women: magnitude, determinants, and effect of training. J Am Diet Assoc 103, 13061313.
39.Poppitt, SD, Swann, D, Black, AE & Prentice, AM (1998) Assessment of selective under-reporting of food intake by both obese and non-obese women in a metabolic facility. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 22, 303311.
40.Bedard, D, Shatenstein, B & Nadon, S (2004) Underreporting of energy intake from a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire completed by adults in Montreal. Public Health Nutr 7, 675681.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed