Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

To what extent have sweetened beverages contributed to the obesity epidemic?

  • Gail Woodward-Lopez (a1), Janice Kao (a1) and Lorrene Ritchie (a1)

A systematic literature review was conducted to determine whether sweetened beverage intake increases the risk for obesity, and the extent to which it has contributed to recent increases in energy intake and adiposity in the USA.


The search included studies published between 1970 and 2010 that examined secular trends, mechanisms, observational associations and intervention outcomes. Observational and intervention studies were abstracted and systematically evaluated for quality.


Trends in obesity prevalence in the USA and studies from industrialized (developed) countries were included.


Studies were included for all ages, genders, ethnic and socio-economic groups for which data were available.


Obesity rates and sweetened beverage intake have increased in tandem in the USA. Studies consistently show that higher intake of sweetened beverages is associated with higher energy intake. Energy in liquid form is not well compensated for by reductions in the intake of other sources of energy. Well-designed observational studies consistently show a significant positive relationship between sweetened beverage intake and adiposity. More importantly, several well-conducted randomized controlled trials have shown statistically significant changes in adiposity as a result of corresponding changes in sweetened beverage intake.


All lines of evidence consistently support the conclusion that the consumption of sweetened beverages has contributed to the obesity epidemic. It is estimated that sweetened beverages account for at least one-fifth of the weight gained between 1977 and 2007 in the US population. Actions that are successful in reducing sweetened beverage consumption are likely to have a measurable impact on obesity.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      To what extent have sweetened beverages contributed to the obesity epidemic?
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      To what extent have sweetened beverages contributed to the obesity epidemic?
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      To what extent have sweetened beverages contributed to the obesity epidemic?
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email
Hide All
1. Bates LM, Acevedo-Garcia D, Alegria M et al. (2008) Immigration and generational trends in body mass index and obesity in the United States: results of the National Latino and Asian American Survey, 2002–2003. Am J Public Health 98, 7077.
2. Troiano RP, Briefel RR, Carroll MD et al. (2000) Energy and fat intakes of children and adolescents in the United States: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 5 Suppl., S1343S1353.
3. Bleich SN, Cutler D, Murray C et al. (2008) Why is the developed world obese? Annu Rev Public Health 29, 273295.
4.US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service (2003) Food consumption per capita data system. (accessed May 2003).
5. Nielsen SJ, Siega-Riz AM & Popkin BM (2002) Trends in food locations and sources among adolescents and young adults. Prev Med 35, 107113.
6. California Department of Health Services (2000) Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines for Adolescents. (accessed October 2009).
7. Brownson RC, Boehmer TK & Luke DA (2005) Declining rates of physical activity in the United States: what are the contributors? Annu Rev Public Health 26, 421443.
8. Kruger J, Kohl HW III & Miles IJ (2007) Prevalence of regular physical activity among adults – United States, 2001 and 2005. MMWR 56, 12091212.
9.Stanford Prevention Research Center (2007) Building ‘Generation Play’: addressing the crisis of inactivity among America’s children. (accessed June 2008).
10. Westerterp KR & Speakman JR (2008) Physical activity energy expenditure has not declined since the 1980s and matches energy expenditures of wild mammals. Int J Obes 32, 12561263.
11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2008) Prevalence of self-reported physically active adults – United States, 2007. MMWR 57, 12971300.
12. Troiano RP, Berrigan D, Dodd KW et al. (2008) Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40, 181188.
13. Matthews CE, Chen KY, Freedson PS et al. (2008) Amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in the United States, 2003–2004. Am J Epidemiol 167, 875881.
14. Prentice A & Jebb S (2004) Energy intake/physical activity interactions in the homeostasis of body weight regulation. Nutr Rev 62, S98S104.
15. Gerstein D, Woodward-Lopez G, Evans A et al. (2004) Clarifying concepts about macronutrients’ effects on satiation and satiety. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 11511153.
16. Muñoz KA, Krebs-Smith SM et al. (1997) Food intakes of US children and adolescents compared with recommendations. Pediatrics 100, part 1, 323329.
17. Bachman JL, Reedy J, Subar AF et al. (2008) Sources of food group intakes among the US population, 2001–2002. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 804814.
18. Johnson RK & Frary C (2001) Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars: the 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans – what’s all the fuss about? J Nutr 131, S2766S2771.
19. Guthrie JF & Morton JF (2000) Food sources of added sweeteners in the diets of Americans. J Am Diet Assoc 100, 4351.
20. Woodward-Lopez G, Ritchie L, Gerstein D et al. (2006) Obesity: Dietary and Developmental Influences. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
21. Harnack L, Stang J & Story M (1999) Soft drink consumption among US children and adolescents: nutritional consequences. J Am Diet Assoc 99, 436441.
22. Guthrie JF (1996) Dietary patterns and personal characteristics of women consuming recommended amounts of calcium. Fam Econ Nutr Rev 9, 3349.
23. Vartanian LR, Schwartz MB & Brownell KD (2007) Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Public Health 97, 667675.
24. Nielsen SJ & Popkin BM (2004) Changes in beverage intake between 1977 and 2001. Am J Prev Med 27, 205210.
25. Bleich SN, Wang CY, Wang Y et al. (2009) Increasing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among US adults: 1988–1994 to 1999–2004. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 372381.
26. Jacobson MF (2005) Liquid candy: how soft drinks are harming Americans’ health. (accessed June 2008).
27. Skinner JD & Carruth BR (2001) A longitudinal study of children’s juice intake and growth: the juice controversy revisited. J Am Diet Assoc 101, 432437.
28. West S, King V, Carey TS et al. (2002) Systems to rate the strength of scientific evidence. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Summ) 47, 111.
29. Duffey KJ & Popkin BM (2007) Shifts in patterns and consumption of beverages between 1965 and 2002. Obesity 15, 27392747.
30. Wang YC, Bleich SN & Gortmaker SL (2008) Increasing caloric contribution from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100 % fruit juices among US children and adolescents, 1988–2004. Pediatrics 121, E1604E1614.
31. Giammattei J, Blix G, Marshak HH et al. (2003) Television watching and soft drink consumption: associations with obesity in 11- to 13-year-old schoolchildren. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 157, 882886.
32. Miech RA, Kumanyika SK, Stettler N et al. (2006) Trends in the association of poverty with overweight among US adolescents 1971–2004. JAMA 295, 23852393.
33. Fox MK, Pac S, Devaney B et al. (2004) Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: what foods are infants and toddlers eating? J Am Diet Assoc 104, S31S37.
34.United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (1997) Data tables: results from USDA’s 1994–96 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and 1994–96 Diet and Health Knowledge Survey.
35. Block G (2004) Foods contributing to energy intake in the US: data from NHANES III and NHANES 1999–2000. J Food Compost Anal 17, 439447.
36. Lytle LA, Seifert S, Greenstein J et al. (2000) How do children’s eating patterns and food choices change over time? Results from a cohort study. Am J Health Promot 14, 222228.
37. Drewnowski A & Bellisle F (2007) Liquid calories, sugar, and body weight. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 651661.
38. Sturm R (2005) Childhood obesity: what we can learn from existing data on societal trends: Part 2. Prev Chronic Dis 2, A20.
39. French SA, Story M, Jeffery RW et al. (1997) Pricing strategy to promote fruit and vegetable purchase in high school cafeterias. J Am Diet Assoc 97, 10081010.
40. French SA (2003) Pricing effects on food choices. J Nutr 133, 841S843S.
41. French SA (2005) Public health strategies for dietary change: schools and workplaces. J Nutr 135, 910912.
42. Anderson JV, Bybee DI, Brown RM et al. (2001) 5-a-day fruit and vegetable intervention improves consumption in a low income population. J Am Diet Assoc 101, 195202.
43. Herman D (2008) Low-income women purchase a variety of fruits and vegetables when provided with an economic incentive. FASEB J 19, Suppl. 5, A1697.
44. Johnson DB, Beaudoin S, Smith LT et al. (2004) Increasing fruit and vegetable intake in homebound elders: the Seattle Senior Farmers’ Market Nutrition Pilot Program. Prev Chronic Dis 1, A03.
45. Nielsen SJ & Popkin BM (2003) Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, 1977–1998. JAMA 289, 450453.
46. Beverage Digest (1998) Fact Book 1998, pp. 5455. Bedford Hill, NY: Beverage Digest.
47. Gallo AE (1999) Food advertising in the United States. In America’s Eating Habits: Changes and Consequences. Agriculture Information Bulletin no. (AIB750), pp. 173180 [E Frazao, editor]. Washington, DC: USDA.
48. Mattes RD (1996) Dietary compensation by humans for supplemental energy provided as ethanol or carbohydrate in fluids. Physiol Behav 59, 179187.
49. Mattes R (2006) Fluid calories and energy balance: the good, the bad, and the uncertain. Physiol Behav 89, 6670.
50. Tordoff MG & Alleva AM (1990) Effect of drinking soda sweetened with aspartame or high-fructose corn syrup on food intake and body weight. Am J Clin Nutr 51, 963969.
51. DiMeglio DP & Mattes RD (2000) Liquid versus solid carbohydrate: effects on food intake and body weight. Int J Obes 24, 794800.
52. Raben A, Vasilaras TH, Møller AC et al. (2002) Sucrose compared with artificial sweeteners: different effects on ad libitum food intake and body weight after 10 wk of supplementation in overweight subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 721729.
53. Van Wymelbeke V, Béridot-Thérond ME, de La Guéronnière V et al. (2004) Influence of repeated consumption of beverages containing sucrose or intense sweeteners on food intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 154161.
54. Reid M, Hammersley R, Hill AJ et al. (2007) Long-term dietary compensation for added sugar: effects of supplementary sucrose drinks over a 4-week period. Br J Nutr 97, 193203.
55. Teff K (1994) Cephalic phase insulin release in humans: mechanism and function. In Appetite and Body Weight Regulation: Sugar, Fat, and Macronutrient Substitutes, pp. 3750 [JD Fernstrom and GD Miller, editors]. Boca Raton, FL: CFC Press Inc.
56. Guenther PM (1986) Beverages in the diets of American teenagers. J Am Diet Assoc 86, 493499.
57. Cullen KW, Ash DM, Warneke C et al. (2002) Intake of soft drinks, fruit-flavored beverages, and fruits and vegetables by children in grades 4 through 6. Am J Public Health 92, 14751477.
58. Wang YC, Ludwig DS, Sonneville K et al. (2009) Impact of change in sweetened caloric beverage consumption on energy intake among children and adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 163, 336343.
59. Berkey CS, Rockett HRH, Field AE et al. (2004) Sugar-added beverages and adolescent weight change. Obes Res 12, 778788.
60. Blum JW, Jacobsen DJ & Donnelly JE (2005) Beverage consumption patterns in elementary school aged children across a two-year period. J Am Coll Nutr 24, 9398.
61. Dubois L, Farmer A, Girard M et al. (2007) Regular sugar-sweetened beverage consumption between meals increases risk of overweight among preschool-aged children. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 924934.
62. Fiorito LM, Marini M, Francis LA et al. (2009) Beverage intake of girls at age 5 y predicts adiposity and weight status in childhood and adolescence. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 935942.
63. Johnson L, Mander AP, Jones LR et al. (2007) Is sugar-sweetened beverage consumption associated with increased fatness in children? Nutrition 23, 557563.
64. Kral TVE, Stunkard AJ, Berkowitz RI et al. (2008) Beverage consumption patterns of children born at different risk of obesity. Obesity 16, 18021808.
65. Laurson K, Eisenmann JC & Moore S (2008) Lack of association between television viewing, soft drinks, physical activity, and body mass index in children. Acta Paediatr 97, 795800.
66. Libuda L, Alexy U, Sichert-Hellert W et al. (2008) Pattern of beverage consumption and long-term association with body-weight status in German adolescents – results from the DONALD study. Br J Nutr 99, 13701379.
67. Lim S, Zoellner JM, Lee JM et al. (2009) Obesity and sugar-sweetened beverages in African-American preschool children: a longitudinal study. Obesity 17, 12621268.
68. Ludwig DS, Peterson KE & Gortmaker SL (2001) Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity. Lancet 357, 505508.
69. Newby PK, Peterson KE, Berkey CS et al. (2004) Beverage consumption is not associated with changes in weight and body mass index among low-income preschool children in North Dakota. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 10861094.
70. Nissinen K, Mikkilä V, Männistö S et al. (2009) Sweets and sugar-sweetened soft drink intake in childhood in relation to adult BMI and overweight. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Public Health Nutr 12, 20182026.
71. Phillips SM, Bandini LG, Naumova EN et al. (2004) Energy-dense snack food intake in adolescence: longitudinal relationship to weight and fatness. Obes Res 12, 461472.
72. Striegel-Moore RH, Thompson D, Affenito SG et al. (2006) Correlates of beverage intake in adolescent girls: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. J Pediatr 148, 183187.
73. Sugimori H, Yoshida K, Iauno T et al. (2004) Analysis of factors that influence body mass index from ages 3 to 6 years: a study based on the Toyama cohort study. Pediatr Int 46, 302310.
74. Tam CS, Garnett SP, Cowell CT et al. (2006) Soft drink consumption and excess weight gain in Australian school students: results from the Nepean study. Int J Obes 30, 10911093.
75. Warner ML, Harley K, Bradman A et al. (2006) Soda consumption and overweight status of 2-year-old Mexican-American children in California. Obesity 14, 19661974.
76. Welsh JA, Cogswell ME, Rogers S et al. (2005) Overweight among low-income preschool children associated with the consumption of sweet drinks: Missouri, 1999–2002. Pediatrics 115, e223e229.
77. Vanselow MS, Pereira MA, Neumark-Sztainer D et al. (2009) Adolescent beverage habits and changes in weight over time: findings from Project EAT. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 14891495.
78. Bes-Rastrollo M, Sanchez-Villegas A, Gomez-Gracia E et al. (2006) Predictors of weight gain in a Mediterranean cohort: the Seguimento Universidad de Navarra Study. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 362370.
79. French SA, Jeffery RW, Forster JL et al. (1994) Predictors of weight change over two years among a population of working adults: The Healthy Worker Project. Int J Obes 18, 145154.
80. Kvaavik E, Andersen LF & Klepp KI (2004) The stability of soft drinks intake from adolescence to adult age and the association between long-term consumption of soft drinks and lifestyle factors and body Weight. Public Health Nutr 8, 149157.
81. Palmer JR, Boggs DA, Krishnan S et al. (2008) Sugar-sweetened beverages and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women. Arch Intern Med 168, 14871492.
82. Schulze MB, Manson JE, Ludwig DS et al. (2004) Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. JAMA 292, 927934.
83. Bremer AA, Auinger P & Byrd RS (2009) Relationship between insulin resistance–associated metabolic parameters and anthropometric measurements with sugar-sweetened beverage intake and physical activity levels in US adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 163, 328335.
84. Forshee RA & Storey ML (2003) Total beverage consumption and beverage choices among children and adolescents. Int J Food Sci Nutr 54, 297307.
85. Forshee RA, Anderson PA & Storey ML (2004) The role of beverage consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and demographics on body mass index of adolescents. Int J Food Sci Nutr 55, 463478.
86. LaRowe TL, Moeller SM & Adams AK (2007) Beverage patterns, diet quality, and body mass index of US preschool and school-aged children. J Am Diet Assoc 107, 11241133.
87. O’Connor TM, Yang S & Nicklas TA (2006) Beverage intake among preschool children and its effect on weight status. Pediatrics 118, e1010e1018.
88. Lin BH, Huang CL & French SA (2004) Factors associated with women’s and children’s body mass indices by income status. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 536542.
89. Sun SZ & Empie MW (2007) Lack of findings for the association between obesity risk and usual sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in adults – a primary analysis of databases of CSFII 1989–1991, CSFII 1994–1998, NHANES III, and combined NHANES 1999–2002. Food Chem Toxicol 45, 15231536.
90. Andersen LF, Lillegaard ITL, Overby N et al. (2005) Overweight and obesity among Norwegian schoolchildren: changes from 1993–2000. Scand J Public Health 33, 99106.
91. Ariza AJ, Chen EH, Binns HJ et al. (2004) Risk factors for overweight in five- to six-year-old Hispanic American children: a pilot study. J Urban Health 81, 150161.
92. Gibson S & Neate D (2007) Sugar intake, soft drink consumption, and body weight among British children: further analysis of National Diet and Nutrition Survey data with adjustment for under-reporting and physical activity. Int J Food Sci Nutr 58, 445460.
93. Gillis LJ & Bar-Or O (2003) Food away from home, sugar-sweetened drink consumption, and juvenile obesity. J Am Coll Nutr 22, 539545.
94. Gómez-Martínez S, Martín A, Romeo J et al. (2009) Is soft drink consumption associated with body composition? A cross-sectional study in Spanish adolescents. Nutr Hosp 24, 97102.
95. Linardakis M, Sarri K, Pateraki M-S et al. (2008) Sugar-added beverages consumption among kindergarten children of Crete: effects on nutritional status and risk of obesity. BMC Public Health 8, 279285.
96. Mahmood M, Saleh A, Al-Alawi F et al. (2008) Health effects of soda drinking in adolescent girls in the United Arab Emirates. J Crit Care 23, 435440.
97. Nicklas TA, Yang S, Baranowski T et al. (2003) Eating patterns and obesity in children: The Bogalusa Heart Study. Am J Prev Med 25, 916.
98. Ochoa MC, Moreno-Aliaga MJ, Martinez-Gonzalez MA et al. (2007) Predictor factors for childhood obesity in a Spanish case–control study. Nutrition 23, 379384.
99. Overby NC, Lillegaard ITL, Johansson L et al. (2003) High intake of added sugar among Norwegian children and adolescents. Public Health Nutr 7, 285293.
100. Rockett HRH, Berkey CS, Field AE et al. (2001) Cross-sectional measurement of nutrient intake among adolescents in 1996. Prev Med 33, 2737.
101. Rodríguez-Artalejo F, García EL, Gorgojo L et al. (2003) On behalf of the investigators of the Four Provinces Study. Consumption of bakery products, sweetened soft drinks and yogurt among children aged 6–7 years: association with nutrient intake and overall diet quality. Br J Nutr 89, 419419.
102. Sanigorski AM, Bell AC & Swinburn BA (2007) Association of key foods and beverages with obesity in Australian schoolchildren. Public Health Nutr 10, 152157.
103. French SA, Jeffery RW, Forster JL et al. (1994) Predictors of weight change over two years among a population of working adults: the Healthy Worker Project. Int J Obes 18, 145154.
104. Kent LM & Worsley A (2008) Does the prescriptive lifestyle of Seventh-day Adventists provide ‘immunity’ from the secular effects of changes in BMI? Public Health Nutr 12, 472480.
105. Leon-Guerrero RT, Paulino YC, Novotny R et al. (2008) Diet and obesity among Chamorro and Filipino adults on Guam. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 17, 216222.
106. Liebman M, Pelican S, Moore SA et al. (2003) Dietary intake, eating behavior, and physical activity-related determinants of high body mass index in rural communities in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho. Int J Obes 27, 684692.
107. Novotny R, Williams AE, Vinoya AC et al. (2009) US acculturation, food intake, and obesity among Asian-Pacific hotel workers. J Am Diet Assoc 109, 17121718.
108. O’Neil CE, Nicklas TA, Liu Y et al. (2009) Impact of dairy and sweetened beverage consumption on diet and weight of a multiethnic population of Head Start mothers. J Am Diet Assoc 109, 874882.
109. Rehm CD, Matte TD et al. (2008) Demographic and behavioral factors associated with daily sugar-sweetened soda consumption in New York City adults. J Urban Health 85, 375385.
110. Beech BM, Klesges RC, Kumanyika SK et al. (2003) Child- and parent-targeted interventions: the Memphis GEMS pilot study. Ethn Dis 13, S40S52.
111. Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Osganian SK et al. (2006) Effects of decreasing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on body weight in adolescents: a randomized, controlled pilot study. Pediatrics 117, 673680.
112. James J, Thomas P, Cavan D et al. (2004) Preventing childhood obesity by reducing consumption of carbonated drinks: cluster randomized controlled trial. BMJ 328, 12371242.
113. Jordan KC, Erickson ED, Cox R et al. (2008) Evaluation of the Gold Medal Schools Program. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 19161920.
114. Teufel NI & Ritenbaugh CK (1998) Development of a primary prevention program: insight gained in the Zuni Diabetes Prevention Program. Clin Pediatr 37, 131142.
115. Vartanian LR, Schwartz MB & Brownell KD (2007) Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Public Health 97, 667675.
116. Forshee RA, Anderson PA & Storey ML (2008) Sugar-sweetened beverages and body mass index in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 16621671.
117. Malik VS, Willett WC & Hu FB (2009) Sugar-sweetened beverages and BMI in children and adolescents: reanalyses of a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 438439.
118. Forshee RA, Storey ML & Anderson PA (2009) Reply to VS Malik et al. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 439440.
119. Malik VS, Schulze MB & Hu FB (2006) Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 274288.
120. French SA, Story M & Jeffery RW (2001) Environmental influences on eating and physical activity. Annu Rev Public Health 22, 309335.
121. Swinburn BA, Caterson I, Seidell JC et al. (2004) Diet, nutrition, and the prevention of excess weight gain and obesity. Public Health Nutr 7, 123146.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary Materials

Woodward-Lopez supplementary material

 Word (203 KB)
203 KB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 132
Total number of PDF views: 552 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1613 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.