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Use of national food balance data to estimate the adequacy of zinc in national food supplies: methodology and regional estimates

  • Sara E Wuehler (a1), Janet M Peerson (a1) and Kenneth H Brown (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PHN2005724
  • Published online: 01 September 2007
Abstract
AbstractObjectives

Adequate zinc nutriture is critically important for human health, but the development of programmes to control zinc deficiency is limited by the lack of reliable information on population zinc status. The present analyses were conducted to: (1) estimate the absorbable zinc content of national food supplies; (2) compare this information with theoretical population requirements for zinc; and (3) use these results to predict national risks of inadequate zinc intake.

Setting and design: National food balance data were obtained for 176 countries from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. The amount of absorbable zinc in these foods was estimated from food composition data, and zinc absorption was predicted using a model developed by the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG). Demographic data were obtained from United Nations estimates, and age- and sex-specific physiological requirements for absorbable zinc were estimated using IZiNCG recommendations.

Results and conclusions: The mean per capita absorbable zinc content of national food supplies ranged from 2.98–3.01 mg day−1 in Western Europe and USA & Canada to 2.09 mg day−1 in Southeast Asia. The estimated percentage of individuals at risk of inadequate zinc intake ranged from 9.3–9.5% in the regions of North Africa & Eastern Mediterranean and USA & Canada to 33.1% in Southeast Asia. Overall, approximately 20.5% of the world's population is estimated to be at risk of inadequate zinc intake. Data on the absorbable zinc content of national food supplies can be used to determine whether further assessments of population zinc status and development of intervention programmes are warranted.

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*Corresponding author: Email sewuehler@ucdavis.edu
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3ZA Bhutta , SM Bird , RE Black , KH Brown , JM Gardner , A Hidayat , Prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia by zinc supplementation in children in developing countries: pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. Zinc Investigators' Collaborative Group. Journal of Pediatrics 1999; 135: 689–97.

5S Sazawal , RE Black , VP Menon , P Dhingra , LE Caulfield , U Dhingra , Zinc supplementation in infants born small for gestational age reduces mortality: a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics 2001; 108: 1280–6.

7KH Brown , SE Wuehler , JM Peerson . The importance of zinc in human nutrition and estimation of the global prevalence of zinc deficiency. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 2001; 22: 113–25.

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Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
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