Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Who is behind the stocking of energy-dense foods and beverages in small stores? The importance of food and beverage distributors

  • Guadalupe X Ayala (a1) (a2), Heather D’Angelo (a3), Joel Gittelsohn (a4), Lucy Horton (a2), Kurt Ribisl (a3), Lesley Schmidt Sindberg (a5), Christina Olson (a1) (a6), Anna Kharmats (a7) and Melissa N Laska (a5)...
Abstract
Abstract Objective

The present study examined food and beverage distributors’ sourcing, placement and promotion of obesogenic (energy-dense, nutrient-poor) product categories from the perspective of small food store owners/managers. The obesogenic product categories of interest were savoury snacks, sugary beverages, sweet snacks, confectionery and frozen treats. Specifically, we examined how frequently distributors sourced these products, and the types of agreements and expectations they had for their placement and promotion. Differences were explored by store size and ethnicity. Fresh produce was used as a comparison when examining differences in frequency of sourcing only, with implications for healthy food access.

Design

Survey research involving in-person interviews.

Setting

Four urban areas in the USA: Baltimore, MD; Durham, NC; Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN; and San Diego, CA.

Subjects

Seventy-two small food store owners/managers, 65 % consent rate.

Results

Most distributors sourced obesogenic products weekly. Agreements to place products were predominantly informal (e.g. handshake) with sweet snack, confectionery and frozen treat distributors, and formal (e.g. contract) with savoury snack and sugary beverage distributors. Free-standing displays were the most common incentive provided by distributors and they expected some control over their placement and pricing. Free/discounted products and signage were also common incentives but slotting fees were not. Smaller stores and ethnic stores were less likely to receive various incentives, but among sweet snack distributors, they were more likely to control the price in ethnic v. non-ethnic stores.

Conclusions

Obesogenic products are ubiquitous. Influencing what is made available to consumers in the retail food environment needs to consider the distributor.

Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Email ayala@mail.sdsu.edu
References
Hide All
1. Whitehouse A, Simon A, French SA et al. (2012) Availability of snacks, candy and beverages in hospital, community clinic and commercial pharmacies. Public Health Nutr 15, 11171123.
2. Farley TA, Rice J, Bodor JN et al. (2009) Measuring the food environment: shelf space of fruits, vegetables, and snack foods in stores. J Urban Health 86, 672682.
3. Laska MN, Borradaile KE, Tester J et al. (2010) Healthy food availability in small urban food stores: a comparison of four US cities. Public Health Nutr 13, 10311035.
4. Astrup A, Bovy MW, Nackenhorst K et al. (2006) Food for thought or thought for food? – a stakeholder dialogue around the role of the snacking industry in addressing the obesity epidemic. Obes Rev 7, 303312.
5. Drewnowski A & Rehm CD (2013) Energy intakes of US children and adults by food purchase location and by specific food source. Nutr J 12, 59.
6. Ambrosini GL (2014) Childhood dietary patterns and later obesity: a review of the evidence. Proc Nutr Soc 73, 137146.
7. Newby PK (2007) Are dietary intakes and eating behaviors related to childhood obesity? A comprehensive review of the evidence. J Law Med Ethics 35, 3560.
8. Moreno LA & Rodríguez G (2007) Dietary risk factors for development of childhood obesity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 10, 336341.
10. Powell LM, Slater S, Mirtcheva D et al. (2007) Food store availability and neighborhood characteristics in the United States. Prev Med 44, 189195.
11. Poti JM & Popkin BM (2011) Trends in energy intake among US children by eating location and food source, 1977–2006. J Am Diet Assoc 111, 11561164.
12. Lawman HG, Vander Veur S, Mallya G et al. (2015) Changes in quantity, spending, and nutritional characteristics of adult, adolescent and child urban corner store purchases after an environmental intervention. Prev Med 74, 8185.
13. Lent MR, Vander Veur SS, McCoy TA et al. (2014) A randomized controlled study of a healthy corner store initiative on the purchases of urban, low-income youth. Obesity (Silver Spring) 22, 24942500.
14. Gittelsohn J, Rowan M & Gadhoke P (2012) Interventions in small food stores to change the food environment, improve diet, and reduce risk of chronic disease. Prev Chronic Dis 9, E59.
15. Paek H-J, Oh HJ, Jung Y et al. (2014) Assessment of a healthy corner store program (FIT Store) in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan. Fam Community Health 37, 8699.
16. Ayala GX, Baquero B, Laraia BA et al. (2013) Efficacy of a store-based environmental change intervention compared with a delayed treatment control condition on store customers’ intake of fruits and vegetables. Public Health Nutr 16, 19531960.
17. Song H-J, Gittelsohn J, Kim M et al. (2009) A corner store intervention in a low-income urban community is associated with increased availability and sales of some healthy foods. Public Health Nutr 12, 20602067.
18. Bleich SN, Herring BJ, Flagg DD et al. (2012) Reduction in purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages among low-income Black adolescents after exposure to caloric information. Am J Public Health 102, 329335.
19. Papies EK, Potjes I, Keesman M et al. (2014) Using health primes to reduce unhealthy snack purchases among overweight consumers in a grocery store. Int J Obes (Lond) 38, 597602.
20. Monteiro CA, Moubarac JC, Cannon G et al. (2013) Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food system. Obes Rev 14, Suppl. 2, 2128.
21. John R, Cheney MK & Azad MR (2009) Point-of-sale marketing of tobacco products: taking advantage of the socially disadvantaged? J Health Care Poor Underserved 20, 489506.
22. Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Clark PI et al. (2003) How tobacco companies ensure prime placement of their advertising and products in stores: interviews with retailers about tobacco company incentive programmes. Tob Control 12, 184188.
23. Laws MB, Whitman J, Bowser DM et al. (2002) Tobacco availability and point of sale marketing in demographically contrasting districts of Massachusetts. Tob Control 11, Suppl. 2, ii71ii73.
24. Caspi CE, Pelletier JE, Harnack L et al. (2016) Differences in healthy food supply and stocking practices between small grocery stores, gas-marts, pharmacies and dollar stores. Public Health Nutr 19, 540547.
25. Cohen DA & Babey SH (2012) Contextual influences on eating behaviours: heuristic processing and dietary choices. Obes Rev 13, 766779.
26. Achrol RS (2011) Slotting allowances: a time series analysis of aggregate effects over three decades. J Acad Mark Sci 40, 673694.
27. Wilkie WL, Desrochers DM & Gundlach GT (2002) Marketing research and public policy: the case of slotting fees. J Public Policy Mark 21, 275288.
28. Jetter KM & Cassady DL (2010) Increasing fresh fruit and vegetable availability in a low-income neighborhood convenience store: a pilot study. Health Promot Pract 11, 694702.
29. Feighery EC, Ribisl KM, Achabal DD et al. (1999) Retail trade incentives: how tobacco industry practices compare with those of other industries. Am J Public Health 89, 15641566.
30. Budd N, Cuccia A, Jeffries JK et al. (2015) B’More Healthy: Retail Rewards – design of a multi-level communications and pricing intervention to improve the food environment in Baltimore City. BMC Public Health 15, 283.
31. Hattersley L (2013) Agri-food system transformations and diet-related chronic disease in Australia: a nutrition-oriented value chain approach. Agric Hum Values 30, 299309.
32. Novotny R, Vijayadeva V, Ramirez V et al. (2011) Development and implementation of a food system intervention to prevent childhood obesity in rural Hawai’i. Hawaii Med J 70, 7 Suppl. 1, 4246.
33. Cannuscio CC, Tappe K, Hillier A et al. (2013) Urban food environments and residents’ shopping behaviors. Am J Prev Med 45, 606614.
34. Sharkey JR, Dean WR, Nalty CC et al. (2013) Convenience stores are the key food environment influence on nutrients available from household food supplies in Texas Border Colonias. BMC Public Health 13, 45.
35. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Lawman HG et al. (2016) Trends in obesity prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States, 1988–1994 through 2013–2014. JAMA 315, 22922299.
36. Glanz K & Yaroch AL (2004) Strategies for increasing fruit and vegetable intake in grocery stores and communities: policy, pricing, and environmental change. Prev Med 39, Suppl. 2, S75S80.
37. Lee JGL, Henriksen L, Myers AE et al. (2014) A systematic review of store audit methods for assessing tobacco marketing and products at the point of sale. Tob Control 23, 98106.
38. Gittelsohn J, Laska MN, Andreyeva T et al. (2012) Small retailer perspectives of the 2009 Women, Infants and Children Program food package changes. Am J Health Behav 36, 655665.
39. Gittelsohn J, Laska MN, Karpyn A et al. (2014) Lessons learned from small store programs to increase healthy food access. Am J Health Behav 38, 307315.
40. Ayala GX, Laska MN, Zenk SN et al. (2012) Stocking characteristics and perceived increases in sales among small food store managers/owners associated with the introduction of new food products approved by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Public Health Nutr 15, 17711779.
41. Odoms-Young AM, Zenk SN, Karpyn A et al. (2012) Obesity and the food environment among minority groups. Curr Obes Rep 1, 141151.
42. Lent MR, Vander Veur S, Mallya G et al. (2015) Corner store purchases made by adults, adolescents and children: items, nutritional characteristics and amount spent. Public Health Nutr 18, 17061712.
43. Calderon J, Ayala GX, Elder JP et al. (2017) What happens when parents and children go grocery shopping? An observational study of Latino dyads in Southern California, USA. Health Educ Behav 44, 512.
44. Bodor JN, Rice JC, Farley TA et al. (2010) The association between obesity and urban food environments. J Urban Health 87, 771781.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 5
Total number of PDF views: 48 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 396 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 3rd October 2017 - 15th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.