Skip to main content
×
Home

Whole grain consumption is inversely associated with BMI Z-score in rural school-aged children

  • Silvina F Choumenkovitch (a1), Nicola M McKeown (a2), Alison Tovar (a1), Raymond R Hyatt (a3), Vivica I Kraak (a4), Alia V Hastings (a1), Julia Bloom Herzog (a1) and Christina D Economos (a1)...
Abstract
AbstractObjective

To examine the relationship between intake of whole grains and BMI Z-score in rural children.

Design

General linear models and logistic regression were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between whole grain intake and BMI Z-score, prevalence and odds ratios of overweight and obesity. Dietary intake was assessed using the Block Food Screener for ages 2–17 years. Children were classified into three categories according to servings of whole grain intake: <1·0 serving/d, 1·0–1·5 servings/d and >1·5 servings/d.

Setting

The CHANGE (Creating Healthy, Active and Nurturing Growing-up Environments) study, an obesity prevention intervention in elementary schools in eight rural US communities in California, Mississippi, Kentucky and South Carolina.

Subjects

Seven hundred and ninety-two children attending 3rd–6th grade.

Results

After adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, physical activity and state of residence, whole grain intake was inversely associated with BMI Z-score (0·90 v. 0·61 in the lowest v. the highest whole grain intake category; P trend = 0·01). Children who consumed >1·5 servings of whole grains/d had a 40 % lower risk of being obese (OR = 0·60; 95 % CI 0·38, 0·95, P = 0·02) compared with children who consumed <1·0 serving/d. Further adjustment for potential dietary predictors of body weight (fruit, vegetable and dairy intakes) did not change the observed associations.

Conclusions

Increasing the intake of whole grains as part of an overall healthy lifestyle may be beneficial for children to achieve and maintain a healthy weight.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Whole grain consumption is inversely associated with BMI Z-score in rural school-aged children
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Whole grain consumption is inversely associated with BMI Z-score in rural school-aged children
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Whole grain consumption is inversely associated with BMI Z-score in rural school-aged children
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Email silvina.choumenkovitch@tufts.edu
References
Hide All
1.Ogden CL, Yanovski SZ, Carroll MDet al. (2007) The epidemiology of obesity. Gastroenterology 132, 20872102.
2.Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LRet al. (2010) Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, 2007–2008. JAMA 303, 242249.
3.South Carolina Rural Health Research Center (2007) Overweight and Physical Inactivity among Rural Children Aged 10–17: A National and State Portrait. http://rhr.sph.sc.edu/report/(7-1)Obesity%20ChartbookUpdated10.15.07-secured.pdf (accessed September 2011).
4.Tudor-Locke C, Kronenfeld JJ, Kim SSet al. (2007) A geographical comparison of prevalence of overweight school-aged children: the National Survey of Children's Health 2003. Pediatrics 120, e1043e1050.
5.Lutfiyya MN, Lipsky MS, Wisdom-Behounek Jet al. (2007) Is rural residency a risk factor for overweight and obesity for US children? Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 23482356.
6.Serdula MK, Ivery D, Coates RJet al. (1993) Do obese children become obese adults? A review of the literature. Prev Med 22, 167177.
7.National Institutes of Health (1998) Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults – The Evidence Report. Obes Res 6, Suppl. 2, 51S209S.
8.US Surgeon General (2001) Overweight and Obesity: health consequences. http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/calls/obesity/fact_consequences.html (accessed July 2012).
9.Renehan AG, Tyson M, Egger Met al. (2008) Body-mass index and incidence of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies. Lancet 371, 569578.
10.Olshansky SJ, Passaro DJ, Hershow RCet al. (2005) A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. N Engl J Med 352, 11381145.
11.Sahyoun NR, Jacques PF, Zhang XLet al. (2006) Whole-grain intake is inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome and mortality in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 124131.
12.Liu S, Willett WC, Manson JEet al. (2003) Relation between changes in intakes of dietary fiber and grain products and changes in weight and development of obesity among middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 920927.
13.Koh-Banerjee P, Franz M, Sampson Let al. (2004) Changes in whole-grain, bran, and cereal fiber consumption in relation to 8-y weight gain among men. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 12371245.
14.McKeown NM, Meigs JB, Liu Set al. (2002) Whole-grain intake is favorably associated with metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 390398.
15.Steffen LM, Jacobs DR Jr, Murtaugh MAet al. (2003) Whole grain intake is associated with lower body mass and greater insulin sensitivity among adolescents. Am J Epidemiol 158, 243250.
16.Newby PK, Maras J, Bakun Pet al. (2007) Intake of whole grains, refined grains, and cereal fiber measured with 7-d diet records and associations with risk factors for chronic disease. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 17451753.
17.Lutsey PL, Jacobs DR Jr, Kori Set al. (2007) Whole grain intake and its cross-sectional association with obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, diabetes and subclinical CVD: The MESA Study. Br J Nutr 98, 397405.
18.Good CK, Holschuh N, Albertson AMet al. (2008) Whole grain consumption and body mass index in adult women: an analysis of NHANES 1999–2000 and the USDA pyramid servings database. J Am Coll Nutr 27, 8087.
19.McKeown NM, Yoshida M, Shea MKet al. (2009) Whole-grain intake and cereal fiber are associated with lower abdominal adiposity in older adults. J Nutr 139, 19501955.
20.van de Vijver LP, van den Bosch LM, van den Brandt PAet al. (2009) Whole-grain consumption, dietary fibre intake and body mass index in the Netherlands cohort study. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 3138.
21.Koh-Banerjee P & Rimm EB (2003) Whole grain consumption and weight gain: a review of the epidemiological evidence, potential mechanisms and opportunities for future research. Proc Nutr Soc 62, 2529.
22.Jenkins DJ, Jenkins AL, Wolever TMet al. (1987) Starchy foods and fiber: reduced rate of digestion and improved carbohydrate metabolism. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 129, 132141.
23.Jenkins DJ, Wesson V, Wolever TMet al. (1988) Wholemeal versus wholegrain breads: proportion of whole or cracked grain and the glycaemic response. BMJ 297, 958960.
24.Slavin JL, Martini MC, Jacobs DR Jret al. (1999) Plausible mechanisms for the protectiveness of whole grains. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 3 Suppl., 459S463S.
25.US Departmant of Health and Human Services & US Department of Agriculture (2005) Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 6th ed. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
26.US Departmant of Health and Human Services & US Department of Agriculture (2010) Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 7th ed. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
27.Putnam J, Allshouse J & Kantor L (2002) US per capita food supply trends: more calories, refined carbohydrates, and fats. Food Rev 25, 215.
28.Newby PK (2009) Plant foods and plant-based diets: protective against childhood obesity? Am J Clin Nutr 89, issue 5, 1572S1587S.
29.Economos CD, Hyatt RR, Goldberg JPet al. (2007) A community intervention reduces BMI z-score in children: Shape Up Somerville first year results. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15, 13251336.
30.Michigan Department of Education (2001) The Role of Michigan Schools in Promoting Healthy Weight: A Consensus Paper. East Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Education.
31.Lohman T (1992) Advances in Body Composition Assessment. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.
32.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2000) CDC table for calculated body mass index values for selected heights and weights for ages 2 to 20. http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/html_charts/bmiagerev.htm (accessed July 2012).
33.Barlow SE (2007) Expert committee recommendations regarding the prevention, assessment, and treatment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity: summary report. Pediatrics 120, Suppl. 4, S164S192.
34.NutritionQuest (2007) Block Food Screeners for Ages 2–17. http://www.nutritionquest.com/assessment/list-of-questionnaires-and-screeners (accessed September 2011).
35.Cullen KW, Watson K & Zakeri I (2008) Relative reliability and validity of the Block Kids Questionnaire among youth aged 10 to 17 years. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 862866.
36.Murashima M, Hoerr SL, Hughes SOet al. (2011) Confirmatory factor analysis of a questionnaire measuring control in parental feeding practices in mothers of Head Start children. Appetite 56, 594601.
37.Davis JN, Ventura EE, Cook LTet al. (2011) LA Sprouts: a gardening, nutrition, and cooking intervention for Latino youth improves diet and reduces obesity. J Am Diet Assoc 111, 12241230.
38.Garcia-Dominic O, Trevino RP, Echon RMet al. (2011) Improving quality of food frequency questionnaire response in low-income Mexican American children. Health Promot Pract (Epublication ahead of print version).
39.Friday JE & Bowman SA (2006) MyPyramid Equivalents Database for USDA Survey Food Codes, 1994–2002 Version 1.0. Beltsville, MD: USDA, ARS, Community Nutrition Research Group; available at http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg
40.National Recreation and Park Association & National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (2004) Hearts N’ Parks – Report of 2004 Magnet Center Performance Data. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/heart/obesity/hrt_n_pk/2004_report.pdf (accessed September 2011).
41.Harnack L, Walters SA & Jacobs DR Jr (2003) Dietary intake and food sources of whole grains among US children and adolescents: data from the 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. J Am Diet Assoc 103, 10151019.
42.Katcher HI, Legro RS, Kunselman ARet al. (2008) The effects of a whole grain-enriched hypocaloric diet on cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women with metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 7990.
43.Jonnalagadda SS, Harnack L, Liu RHet al. (2011) Putting the whole grain puzzle together: health benefits associated with whole grains – summary of American Society for Nutrition 2010 Satellite Symposium. J Nutr 141, issue 5, 1011S1022S.
44.Cheng G, Karaolis-Danckert N, Libuda Let al. (2009) Relation of dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and fiber and whole-grain intakes during puberty to the concurrent development of percent body fat and body mass index. Am J Epidemiol 169, 667677.
45.Davis JN, Alexander KE, Ventura EEet al. (2009) Inverse relation between dietary fiber intake and visceral adiposity in overweight Latino youth. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 11601166.
46.Zanovec M, O'Neil CE, Cho SSet al. (2010) Relationship between whole grain and fiber consumption and body weight measures among 6- to 18-year-olds. J Pediatr 157, 578583.
47.Howarth NC, Saltzman E & Roberts SB (2001) Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutr Rev 59, 129139.
48.Roberts SB & Heyman MB (2000) Dietary composition and obesity: do we need to look beyond dietary fat? J Nutr 130, 2S Suppl., 267S.
49.Marlett JA, McBurney MI & Slavin JL (2002) Position of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fiber. J Am Diet Assoc 102, 9931000.
50.Pereira MA, Jacobs DR Jr, Pins JJet al. (2002) Effect of whole grains on insulin sensitivity in overweight hyperinsulinemic adults. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 848855.
51.Lundin EA, Zhang JX, Lairon Det al. (2004) Effects of meal frequency and high-fibre rye-bread diet on glucose and lipid metabolism and ileal excretion of energy and sterols in ileostomy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 14101419.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Public Health Nutrition
  • ISSN: 1368-9800
  • EISSN: 1475-2727
  • URL: /core/journals/public-health-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 9
Total number of PDF views: 200 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 321 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.