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Bedload-to-suspended load ratio and rapid bedrock incision from Himalayan Landslide-dam lake record

  • Beth Pratt-Sitaula (a1), Michelle Garde (a1) (a2), Douglas W. Burbank (a1), Michael Oskin (a3), Arjun Heimsath (a4) and Emmanuel Gabet (a5)...

About 5400 cal yr BP, a large landslide formed a > 400-m-tall dam in the upper Marsyandi River, central Nepal. The resulting lacustrine and deltaic deposits stretched > 7 km upstream, reaching a thickness of 120 m. 14C dating of 7 wood fragments reveals that the aggradation and subsequent incision occurred remarkably quickly (∼ 500 yr). Reconstructed volumes of lacustrine (∼ 0.16 km3) and deltaic (∼ 0.09 km3) deposits indicate a bedload-to-suspended load ratio of 1:2, considerably higher than the ≤ 1:10 that is commonly assumed. At the downstream end of the landslide dam, the river incised a new channel through ≥ 70 m of Greater Himalayan gneiss, requiring a minimum bedrock incision rate of 13 mm/yr over last 5400 yr. The majority of incision presumably occurred over a fraction of this time, suggesting much higher rates. The high bedload ratio from such an energetic mountain river is a particularly significant addition to our knowledge of sediment flux in orogenic environments.

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*Corresponding author. Current address: Department of Geological Sciences, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA 98926, USA.E-mail address: (B. Pratt-Sitaula)
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